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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (75):
1

What is hypo kinetic disease

A condition of abnormal function involving any structure, part or system

Typically results when we do not do enough activity
EX: CVD, cancer, Type II diabetes

2

what is sedentary death syndrome

a group of signs and symptoms that occur together and are typical of a particular disorder or disease

low fitness
low bone density
high blood sugar
low HDL cholesterol
high resting heart rate
overweight

3

what is a risk factor

factor that causes a person or group of people to be at risk of an unwanted or healthy event

4

what is a relative risk

chance that a disease or side effect will occur given certain conditions or factors

5

how to do treat a primary disease risk factor

maintain health status and prevent new health conditions

6

how do you treat a secondary disease risk factor

detect and treat risk factors

7

how do you treat a tertiary disease risk factor

reduction in the amount of disability caused by disease and treatment or rehabilitation of disease

8

What benefits does physical activity bring to children and adolescents

improved cardio and muscular fitnesss
improved bone health
improved cardio and metabolic health markers
reduced risk of depression

9

what are the negative outcomes of a sedentary life style

high waist circumference
unhealthy level of blood glucose, insulin and fat
lower measures of physical functioning
increased risk for all cause mortality

10

What does coronary heart disease lead to

heart attack

11

what what cerebrovascular disease lead to

brain-stroke

12

what does peripheral vascular disease lead to

loss of limbs

13

what is atheroscierosis

plaque build up in the arteries

14

what is arteriscierosis

hardening of the arteries

15

What are non-modifiable risks for CVD

age: < 55 years father, 65 years mother

16

What are modifiable CVD risks

physical activity
obesity
hypertension
dyslipidemia
tobacco use
diabetes
metabolic syndrome

17

what is hypertension

consistently high blood pressure

18

How does PA affect blood pressure

immediately lowers systolic and diastolic BP

19

what is dislipidemia

high amounts of cholesterol (lipids) and fats (triglycerides) in the blood

20

Increases risk for dislipidemia

total cholesterol 40 mg/dL
LDL <150 mg/dL

21

what is diabetes

inability to regulate blood glucose levels

type 1- insulin dependent
type 2- non-insulin dependent

22

what is the function of insulin

it signals cells to allow glucose to cross cell membranes

23

what is insulin sensitivity

how receptive a cell is to the presence of insulin

24

what is insulin resistance

the cells of the body do not respond to insulin

25

what is GLUT 4

a protein that is required for insulin to increase glucose uptake

26

How does PA affect diabetes

when active, GLUT 4 increases
when inactive, GLUT 4 decreases and insulin resistance increases

27

What are some possible treatments for diabetes

drugs to increase insulin sensitivity or decrease insulin production

weight loss

cardiovascular exercise

resistance training

28

what is metabolic syndrome

it increases the likelihood of CVD and diabetes

29

What are the symptoms of metabolic syndrome

high waist circumference
(>40 in men, 35 in women)

blood triglycerides >150 mg/dL

low blood HDL cholesterol
(130/85 mm Hg
fasting blood glucose >110 mg/dL

30

how does exercise effect mental health

reduces:
anxiety symptoms
anxiety disorder
depressive symptoms
major depressive disorder
agree related decline in cognitive function

31

What physiological effect does exercise have on mental health?

cerebral capillary growth

brain blood flow (oxygenation)

increased regulation of neurotransmitters

increased growth of brain cells

increased ability of nerves to conduct impulses

32

what psychological effect does exercise have on mental health

improves self-esteem
improves motor skill

33

what is osteoporosis

low bone mass that results in structural deterioration of bone tissues

34

what is osteoarthritis

joint pain and function that results in loss of articular cartilage and surgery or joint replacement

35

what is sarcopenia

low muscle mass

36

what are the non modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis

age, sex,genetics, history of fractures and ethnicity (white, asian)

37

what are the modifiable risks factors for osteoporosis

physical inactivity
tobacco use
thin or underweight
low sex hormones
nutrition

38

When is the best opportunity to build strong bone mass to prevent osteoporosis?

right before puberty

39

What types of activity best prevent osteoporosis

high intensity, weight bearing, resistance training, jumping, running

40

What is considered weight stability

less than 3% change in weight

41

what is considered weight loss

at least a 5% loss of body weight

42

what is considered weight loss maintence

maintaining within 3-5% of new weight

43

How much PA would be required for weight loss

60 min moderate or 20 minutes vigorous activity per day (dose response)

44

How does one prevent weight gain

daily PA of 75 min moderate or 20 min vigorous

45

What are the PA guidelines for over weight individuals?

Aim to achieve 300 minute of operate PA or 150 min of vigorous, plus 2 days (1 set 8-12 reps) of resistance training

46

what is a paradigm

a worldview underlying the theories and methodology of a particular scientific subject

47

what is the obesity paradox

obesity is associated with longer survival when comparing obese individuals to thinner ones with the same conditions

48

What does weight cycling lead to

increased inflammation in tissues
increased hypertension
insulin resistance
increased mortality risk
dyslipidemia

49

Assumption: anyone who is determined can lose weight and keep it off

17-20% lose 10% of body weight and keep it off after 1 year and many individuals who lose weight gain it all back within 5 years

50

Assumption: pursuit of weight loss is practical and positive

weight cycling is common
reduction in bone density results
causes psychological stress and increased cortisol

51

What is the economic burden of obesity

$147 billion, but overlooks:
physical inactivity
nutrition habits
degree of discrimination

52

what is Health at Every Size

a shift to health promotion vs weight management

53

How do you use FITT to increase cardiovascular fitness

3+ times per week, overload intensity
20+ minutes, aeribic exercise using large muscle groups

54

What is the rating of perceived extortion

6-11= light to fairly light
12-16= somewhat hard to hard
17-20= very hard to maximum

55

What should your HRmax be at?

57-94%

56

What should your HR reserve be at?

40-85%

57

What should your VO2 max be at?

40-85%

58

How to measure HRmax

206.7-(intensity x age)
or 220-age

59

How to find HRR

HRmax-HRrest

60

How to find exercise HR

(HRR x intensity) + HRrest

61

FITT scale

low-3
average- 3-4
high- 5

62

What are the % breakdowns for HRR

Low- 40-50
Average- 50-60
High- 60-85

63

FITT time breakdowns

low- 10-20min
average- 20-40 min
high- 30-60

64

RT goals and outcomes

health
strength
endurance
performance

exercises
frequency
volume
rest period

65

Traditional RT methods

free weights
machines
calisthenics

66

Nontraditional RT methods

yoga
group exercise

67

Sport specific RT methods

power movements
plyometrics
speed/strength

68

How often should you train each muscle group

twice per week

69

What is there order of RT exercises and sets

large muscle groups first
alternate upper/lower

70

What are training variables

sets, loads, reps

71

What are stretching and flexibility benefits

freedom of movement
performance benefits
optimal posture
injury prevedntion
relief from stiffness
relaxation

72

What are the stretching guidelines

stretch when muscles are warm

do dymanic stretching before and static after

73

What are the FITT stretching guidelines

F: 2 days per week, daily
I: point of tension beyond normal ROM
T: Statis 10-660 seconds, 2-4 sets
T: static, dynamic, ballistic

74

What is DOMS

delayed onset mucle soreness
can happen 24-48 hours after intense exercise

75

What are the criteria to be diagnosed with exercise dependence

tolerance
withdrawal
intention effect
lack of control
time
reduction in other activities
continuance