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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (121):
1

factor being regulated during homeostasis

variable

2

a change, any change, in the variable caused by a stressor such as heat, cold, high BP, lack of O2 in homeostasis

stimulus

3

a sensor that monitors the environment and detects a change in the variable

receptor

4

determines the level or range of the variable during homeostasis

control center

5

carries out the response to the stimulus

effector

6

afferent pathway (toward) the control center

receptor

7

efferent pathway (away) from the control center

effector

8

feedback mechanism in which a change is caused that decreases (shuts off) the initial stimulus

negative feedback loop

9

a feedback mechanism in which any change in environment is accelerated

positive feedback loop

10

glucose, the most important ______, can have the same chemical formula as others but different structures

monosaccharide

11

sweet, table sugar

disaccharides

12

cellulose, structural plant component that can't digest and starches that can digest

polysaccharides

13

Name the different types of lipids:

Fatty acids, eicosanoids, glycerides, steroids, phospholipids, and glycolipids

14

Kind of a base for other lipid types, hear about-unsaturated, mono-, poly-, omega-3 are healthy fats that may contribute to lower incidences of heart disease in some cases even with large amounts of other fats in the diet

fatty acids

15

derived from arachidonic acid, must take in because can't make, a type of prostaglandin that causes sensation of pain when injured and are released to trigger labour contractions

eicosanoids

16

fatty acids + glycerol, chains of fatty acids--mono-, di-, tri-

glycerides, ex: peanut, corn, olive oil

17

flat hydrocarbon ring, cholesterol belongs here (can be taken in by the body), involved in hormones, make bile salts

steroids

18

P containing group, made primarily of lipids

phospholipids and glycolipids

19

cholesterol, phospholipids, and glycolipids are:

structural lipids

20

thin, flat, irregular edge

squamous

21

List the different cell shapes:

Squamous, polygonal, stellate, cuboidal, columnar, spheroid/ovoid, discoid, fusiform, and fibrous

22

irregularly shaped cell

polygonal

23

star shaped cell, multiple extensions

stellate

24

cube or squared cell

cuboidal

25

rectangle or column shaped cell

columnar

26

round to oval shaped cell

spheroid/ovoid

27

disc shaped cell

discoid

28

thick in middle with tapered ends cell shape

fusiform

29

thread-like cell shape

fibrous

30

List the membranous organelles:

Nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and mitochondria

31

List the nonmembranous organelles:

Ribosomes, centrioles, and microvilli/cilia

32

process of destroying organelles

autolysis

33

List 3 ways material get into and out of the cell:

1. Diffusion/osmosis, 2. carrier-mediate transport, 3. vesicular transport

34

total solute concentration in a solution

osmolarity

35

solution with lower osmolarity--water will rush into cells and they will burst

hypotonic

36

solution with higher osmolarity--water will leave the cell to diffuse the molecules on the outside and cell will shrink

hypertonic

37

List 3 methods of endocytosis in vesicular transport:

Phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis

38

List the 5 stages of mitosis:

Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase

39

List the 3 stages of Interphase in mitosis:

G1 phase, S phase, and G2 phase

40

conducts normal cell functions and prepares for mitosis, most of the cell's life

interphase

41

first stage to prepare to divide, doubles up on organelles for two cells, if fast 8-12 hours or if it takes longer then the cell continues to function normally until mitosis occurs

G1 Phase

42

DNA replication stage of interphase, 6-8 hours

S phase

43

2-5 hours, last minute protein synthesis, into M Phase and mitosis begins

G2 phase

44

nucleus disappears, chromosomes coil and become visible

Prophase

45

chromatids move to metaphase plate in the middle of the cell

metaphase

46

chromatids separate and move to the ends (daughter chromosomes)

anaphase

47

prepare to return to interphase

telophase

48

division of the cytoplasm, begins in late anaphase, ends in telophase

cytokinesis

49

bind to each other and to extracellular materials, ex., attach the base of the epithelia to underlying basement membrane

cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)

50

bonds adjacent cells--made of proteoglycans

intercellular cement

51

List the 3 different cell junctions:

Tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes

52

List the 3 different types of cell junctions:

Belt, buttons, hemidesmosomes

53

water tight, fusion of lipid layers of adjoining membranes--lipid gives functionality in water

tight junctions

54

interlocking membrane proteins

gap junctions

55

resist stretching and twisting, damaged cells lost in sheets, strong attachment between the cells

desmosomes

56

formed into bands

belt

57

discs to stabilise the cell shapes, attach to other cells

buttons

58

1/2 button, attach to basement

hemidesmosomes

59

List the 2 layers of basal lamina:

Lamina lucida and lamina densa

60

secreted by adjacent layer of epithelial cells, barrier to stuff from underlying connective tissue, closer to epithelium--made by epithelial cells

lamina lucida

61

coarse protein fibers produced by connective tissue cells

lamina densa

62

germinative cells near the basal lamina

epithelial maintenance and repair

63

1 layer thick of flat-shaped cells; found making up structures that do a lot of diffusion or filtration, usually slick, ex. blood vessels (capillaries)

simple squamous epithelium

64

List the 2 types of simple squamous epithelium:

Endothelium and mesothelium

65

special epithelium of cardiovascular (blood vessels and heart) and lymphatic systems; slick, reduce friction; capillaries are exclusively this:

endothelium (inner cover)

66

special epithelium making up the serous membranes of the ventral cavity

mesothelium (middle cover)

67

1 layer of square cells; for absorption and secretion in glands (in glands it forms both secretory portion and small ducts), can secrete enzymes and buffers, ex. kidney tubules, pancreas, saliva glands

simple cuboidal epithelium

68

1 layer of column-shaped cells; diffusion and secretion function but thickness indicates a secretion function--to protect against chemical and absorb nurtients, ex. digestive and respiratory tracts

simple columnar epithelium

69

List 2 simple columnar epithelium modifications in the digestive tract:

Dense microvilli and goblet cells

70

looks stratified but is one layer of cells of different lengths; lines most of the respiratory tract (nasal cavity), male reproductive tract- functions to secrete a lot of mucus

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

71

most common stratified type; found on any surface subject to wear and tear, ex. skin, mouth, esophagus, anus, vagina; some are non-keratinised so must keep moist-can have keratin for extra protection and retain moisture

stratified squamous epithelium

72

rare, columnar: male urethra, pharynx, epiglottis --- cuboidal - sweat, mammary glands

stratified columnar and cuboidal epithelium

73

important for its characteristic ability to stretch; apical cells change shape according to amount of stretch; basal cells are cuboidal or columnar but when stretched looks like squamous, ex. bladder, ureters, parts of urethra

transitional epithelium

74

a special case of cuboidal, specialised for secretion

glandular epithelium

75

an organ that produces and secretes a product which is aqueous + protein or some release lipid or steroid; rich secretion; rough ER of glandular cells produce special protein MUCIN, send it to the Golgi Apparatus, shipped out of the cell through exocytosis in secretory vesicles

glands

76

Glands are classified according to:

Site of product release and relative number of cells forming the gland

77

to epithelial surface inside or outside the body by way of a duct; secretion

exocrine

78

secreted into extracellular spaces

endocrine

79

List the different types of exocrine glands:

Mucus, sweat (sudoriferous glands), sebaceous (oil glands), ceruminous glands, salivary glands, digestive enzymes

80

List the 2 different types of exocrine structures:

unicellular and multicellular

81

List the different modes of glandular secretion:

Merocrine glands, holocrine glands, and apocrine glands

82

secrete products by exocytosis as they are produced; secretory cells are NOT altered, ex. pancreas, most sweat glands, salivary glands

merocrine glands

83

accumulate their products within them until they rupture; replaced by underlying cells, ex. sebaceous glands

holocrine glands

84

loss of cytoplasm and secretory product, ex. mammary glands (modified sweat glands)

apocrine glands

85

3 types of connective tissue fibers:

collagen, elastic fibers, reticular fibers

86

List the 2 forms of connective tissue cells:

Active form and dormant form

87

secretes the matrix and divides to make more cells, actively mitotic, undifferentiated

active form

88

after cells surround themselves with matrix, they turn off, maintain the health of the matrix

dormant form

89

cartilage

chondro

90

bone

osteo

91

blood

hemo

92

fat

adipo

93

connective tissue proper

fibro

94

List the 3 categories of connective tissue proper:

Embryonic, loose, and dense

95

mesenchyme

embryonic tissue

96

fill spaces between organs, cushion and stabilise special cells in organs and support epithelia

loose connective tissue

97

List the 3 different types of loose connective tissue:

areolar, adipose, reticular

98

List the 2 types of dense connective tissue:

dense regular and dense irregular

99

List the different types of connective tissue:

Connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissue, and supporting connective tissue

100

flexible, tensile strength where tension is exerted in one direction--makes up ligaments, tendons, and aponeuroses-structures that connect one things to another

dense regular

101

Same structural elements, but collagen fibers are not parallel, can withstand force in many directions. Found in joint capsules, dermis of the skin and fibrous coverings of some organs (kidneys, nerves, muscles, bones)

dense irregular

102

List 2 types of fluid connective tissue:

blood tissue and lymph tissue

103

List the type of supporting connective tissue:

cartilage

104

List the 2 types of cartilage growth not normal in adults:

interstitial growth and appositional growth

105

within the tissue -- initial phase of cartilage formation when chondroblasts divide, secrete matrix, get trapped in the lacuna and go dormant

interstitial growth

106

along the sides -- only repair type in adults, allows outward growth along the edges, perichondrium contains chondroblasts

appositional growth

107

List the 3 types of cartilage:

hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage

108

most abundant cartilage, lots of collagen, firm support and some flexibility, found between bones and joints (articular covering long bones) and forms structures such as nose, baby skeleton, larynx, part of the respiratory tract - called gristle

hyaline

109

similar to hyaline but with more elastin, higher tolerance for bending and stretching, found in the earlobes and epiglottis

elastic cartilage

110

found where there is need for strength against wear and tear, strong support, compressible and resists tension, withstands pressure, rows of chondrocytes alternate with thick collagen fibers, can be grown in the lab, found between vertebra and knee joints, pubic symphysis

fibrocartilage

111

"spokes" that bring nutrients to osteocytes

canaliculi

112

List the 4 types of epithelial membranes:

Mucous membranes, serous membranes, cutaneous membranes, and synovial membranes

113

3 types of muscle tissue:

Skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle

114

List the 2 types of nervous cells:

neurons and neuroglia

115

List the 2 major ways tissues repair:

regeneration and fibrosis

116

proliferation of fibrous connective tissue leading to scar tissue

fibrosis

117

Steps in tissue repair:

1. inflammation, 2. regeneration

118

Capacity for regeneration: epithelial, bone, areolar connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, blood forming tissue

very well

119

Capacity for regeneration: smooth muscle, dense regular connective tissue

moderate

120

Capacity for regeneration: skeletal muscle, cartilage

weak

121

Capacity for regeneration: cardiac muscle, nervous tissue (brain, spinal cord)

none