Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (32)
Someone who says people disagree, not what's right or wrong or what they should do
Says that all of them are right more or less. What's right for this culture may not be right for that culture and vice versa.
Moral skepticism (relativism)
There is no fact of the matter about what is right.
How do you prove right and wrong? You can't.
Objections to relativism
Just because everyone disagrees what is wrong or right doesn't mean there isn't a fact of the matter.
It does not establish that no one is right and doesn't establish that everyone is right.
Relativism seems tolerant but then you have to tolerate the worse cases like genocide.
Objections to relativism: moral hero problem
If what is right is determined by the majority culture, then that means that Gandhi is bad, MLK Jr. is bad, and Jesus is bad.
Objections to relativism: Absolutist counter claims (Lewis)
Says that there is some basic thing people will have agreement with even though there are so many differences. There are universal moral laws.
Says that everyone is selfish
Says that if everyone takes care of themselves then everything goes well
Egoism: Rand (objectivism)
Says that helping others harms the helper and the person being helped. It takes something away from the person helping and then creates or feeds a dependency to the person being helped. Helping people is wrong. Help themselves
Will to power, of values, master and slave morality
He wants the human race to all improve as a whole. Not wrong to help others but you don't have an obligation to do so
Nietzsche : slave morality
Values kindness generosity
Vices: arrogance, selfishness
Nietzsche : master morality
Values: Pride, arrogance
Arguments to egoism
Mother Teresa is as selfish as hurler? Doesn't make sense
Mill says what are the consequences for both actions? We do whichever brings the least pain to the world and the most pleasure
An action is good when it follows a general rule that, when generally practiced, would produce greater happiness
Utilitarianism: higher pleasure
Intellectual pleasure; pleasure in excellence, involves creative and intellectual activities
Utilitarianism: lower pleasure
Stuff we have in common with animals
Food, sleep, sex
Utilitarianism: Experience Machine
Develop whatever scenario desired; program our reality. Go in for life.
Intends to show that Mill is up to something bad because ppl react badly to the machine.
Utilitarianism: mill on experience machine
Brings creativity, gives time for people to embrace their pleasures. Connect with people you haven't before. Can come out and give world what you created.
Utilitarianism: Williams objections
2 thought experiments
Requires acting in accord with w/ duty
Morality is the product of pure reason
Deontology: Kant- categorical imperative
Supreme principle or moral law requires unconditional conformity
Deontology: Kant- categorical imperative Step 1
Identify action you're thinking of doing
Deontology: Kant- categorical imperative Step 2
Convert it to a subjective rule
I may (steal) (lie) (cheat) etc
Deontology: Kant- categorical imperative Step 3
Ex anyone may (steal) (lie) (cheat)
Deontology: Kant- categorical imperative Step 4
Apply consistency test
Deontology: Kant- consistency of will test
Would I want this done to me ?
Kant: perfect duties
Don't break promises
Kant: imperfect duties
The sacrifice of ones self interest for others is wrong cause it harms the sacrificer and the beneficiary