Test 1 Flashcards Preview

Philosophy > Test 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (32)
Loading flashcards...
1

Descriptive relativism

Someone who says people disagree, not what's right or wrong or what they should do

2

Normative relativism

Says that all of them are right more or less. What's right for this culture may not be right for that culture and vice versa.

3

Moral skepticism (relativism)

There is no fact of the matter about what is right.
How do you prove right and wrong? You can't.

Mackie

4

Objections to relativism

Just because everyone disagrees what is wrong or right doesn't mean there isn't a fact of the matter.
It does not establish that no one is right and doesn't establish that everyone is right.
Relativism seems tolerant but then you have to tolerate the worse cases like genocide.

5

Objections to relativism: moral hero problem

If what is right is determined by the majority culture, then that means that Gandhi is bad, MLK Jr. is bad, and Jesus is bad.

6

Objections to relativism: Absolutist counter claims (Lewis)

Says that there is some basic thing people will have agreement with even though there are so many differences. There are universal moral laws.

7

Psychological egoism

Says that everyone is selfish

8

Ethical egoist

Says that if everyone takes care of themselves then everything goes well

9

Egoism: Rand (objectivism)

Says that helping others harms the helper and the person being helped. It takes something away from the person helping and then creates or feeds a dependency to the person being helped. Helping people is wrong. Help themselves

10

Egoism: Nietzsche

Will to power, of values, master and slave morality

He wants the human race to all improve as a whole. Not wrong to help others but you don't have an obligation to do so

11

Nietzsche : slave morality

Ex Christianity

Values kindness generosity
Vices: arrogance, selfishness

12

Nietzsche : master morality

Values: Pride, arrogance

Vice: sympathy

13

Arguments to egoism

Psychological:
Mother Teresa is as selfish as hurler? Doesn't make sense

14

Utilitarianism: Act

Mill says what are the consequences for both actions? We do whichever brings the least pain to the world and the most pleasure

15

Utilitarianism: rule

An action is good when it follows a general rule that, when generally practiced, would produce greater happiness

16

Utilitarianism: higher pleasure

Intellectual pleasure; pleasure in excellence, involves creative and intellectual activities

17

Utilitarianism: lower pleasure

Stuff we have in common with animals

Food, sleep, sex

18

Utilitarianism: Experience Machine

Develop whatever scenario desired; program our reality. Go in for life.
Intends to show that Mill is up to something bad because ppl react badly to the machine.

19

Utilitarianism: mill on experience machine

Brings creativity, gives time for people to embrace their pleasures. Connect with people you haven't before. Can come out and give world what you created.

20

Utilitarianism: Williams objections

2 thought experiments

21

Deontology:

Requires acting in accord with w/ duty

22

Deontology: Kant

Morality is the product of pure reason

23

Deontology: Kant- categorical imperative

Supreme principle or moral law requires unconditional conformity

24

Deontology: Kant- categorical imperative Step 1

Identify action you're thinking of doing

25

Deontology: Kant- categorical imperative Step 2

Convert it to a subjective rule
I may (steal) (lie) (cheat) etc

26

Deontology: Kant- categorical imperative Step 3

Universalized rule

Ex anyone may (steal) (lie) (cheat)

27

Deontology: Kant- categorical imperative Step 4

Apply consistency test

28

Deontology: Kant- consistency of will test

Would I want this done to me ?

29

Kant: perfect duties

Don't kill
Don't steal
Don't lie
Don't break promises

30

Kant: imperfect duties

Help others

31

Rand

The sacrifice of ones self interest for others is wrong cause it harms the sacrificer and the beneficiary

32

Mill

Happiness and pleasure and the absence of pain are the only things desirable as goals