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Flashcards in test 1-ch 1,2,3 Deck (51):
1

what is psychology?

specific study of behavior and the mind

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what is behavior?

actions that can be observed and recorded

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Wilhelm Wundt

first lab dedicated to psych(Germany, 1879), structuralism

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structuralism

basic structures of the mind

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William James

first psych lab in the US, fuctionasim

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functionalism

functions of the mind and its purpose

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psychodynamic theory

Sigmund Frued, unconscious thoughts about sex, death, childhood experiences

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Behaviorism

Watson, Skinner, Pavlov, study only what is directly observable

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cognitive theory

Piaget, Tajfel, thought process, memory, problem solving, used computer as analogy for the mind

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Humanistic theory

Maslow, Rodgers, human potential, (marriage/family counseling is examples)

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Biopsychological theory

Gazzaniga, brains, neurons, chemicals

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types of descriptive research

naturalistic observation, case studies, surveys

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3 neurons and their functions

sensory-message from senses, inter-connect sensory and motor, motor-messages to muscles

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6 parts of a neuron

cell body/soma, dendrites, axon, myelin sheath, axon terminal and terminal buttons, synapse

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how to send a neural message

electrically charged chemcials flow in and out of the soma thru ion channels (sodium and potassium+) (chloride-)

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resting potential

cell is not firing, negatively charged on the inside, (-70 mv)

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action potential

firing of a neuron, must reach threshold, neuron becomes positive as sodium flows in(+40mv)

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reuptake

neurotransmitters are reabsorbed

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Acetylcholine

excitatory, attention, memory, motivation...muscle contractions(nerve gas results in overuse; botulin blocks its use

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Norephinephrine

excitatory, learning, memory, alertness...wakefulness, moods (depression and mania)

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Glutamate

excitatory, used by most neurons, increases efficiency of neural connections

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Dopamine

inhibitory, attention, learning, pleasure, motivation...associations of sensations with memory&emotions, smooth movement (parkinsons) and schizophrenia/mood

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serotonin

inhibitory, calming effect, sleep, dreaming, pain relief, low levels cause depression and agression, eating and apetitite

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GABA

inhibitory, precise muscular coordination, inhibits eating and agression, alcoholism & tetanus

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endorphins

primary natural pain reliever, runners high

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Agonist

drug mimics neurotransmitters (fits in receptor site well enough to work).....ex:morphine(endorphins), L-Dopa (dopamine)

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Reuptake inhibitors

blocks drugs pre-synaptic neurons from reabsorbing a neurotransmitter so more remains in the synapse for future use,... ex: prozac(serotonin)

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antagonists

drugs block a neurotransmitter from receptor site on post synaptic neuron so neurotransmitter does get used, but reabsorbed.......ex: curare and botulin(acetylcholine)

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Brainstem

oldest region of the brain, controls basic functions

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medula &pons

in the brainstem, controls breathing and heart-rate, sleep and arousal , circulation

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cerebellum

brainstem, coordinating movement and balance, effected first by alcohol

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reticular formation

brainstem, alertness, sleep/arousal

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Midbrain

neural relay station

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superior and inferior colliculus

in the midbrain, coordinate movement with sight and sound

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Substantia Nigra

produces dopamine

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thalamus

part of limbic system, sensory relay station, recieves info from all senses besides smell, combinds sight and sound for simutaneous interpretation

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hypothalamus

limbic system, "pleasure center", regulates hunger, thirst, body temp, sexual behavior

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amygdala

limbic system, emotion center, helps to process smell with hippocampus

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hippocampus

memory center, helps to process smell with amygdala

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cerebral cortex lobes and functions

frontal(logic, processing, reasoning, motor cortex), parietal(somatosensory cortex), occipital (visual), temporal(auditory)

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Brocas area

language production, located in the frontal lobe

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Wernickes area

language comprehension, located in the temporal lobe

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angular gyrus

visual ability to read and understand, located in visual cortex

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corpus callosum

nerve fibers that connect the two hemispheres

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left vs right side of the brian fuctions

left- language and logic, breaks down info
right-spacial ability, puts together connections, recognizes faces

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how do the eyes and the optic nerve work

right side of visual field goes to the left brain, left side of visual field goes to the right brain

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Hemholtz

did experiments with reaction times that led to structuralism

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gestalt psychology

the mind plays a big role in perception

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empericism

accurate knowledge can be aquired through observation

50

what is the breakdown of the nervous system?

-central(brain&spinal), peripherial
-peripherial=somatic and autonomic(involuntary)
autonomic=sympathetic(arousing) and parasympthathic (calming)

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pituitary gland

master gland-releases hormones into body