test 2- ch 4,5,7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in test 2- ch 4,5,7 Deck (64):
1

sensation

physiological process through which you are aware of external stimuli

2

perception

psychological process of interrupting those stimuli

3

absolute threshold

min amount of stimulus necessary for detection 50% of the time

4

absolute threshold examples for each

candle flame 30 mi away, ticking of wristwatch at 20 ft in quiet room, 1 tsp of sugar in 2 gal of water, 1 drop of perfume in typical 3 room apt.

5

just noticeable difference

amount of difference between 2 stimuli necessary for detection, differences at lower levels are more noticable

6

translation

turning external stimulation into a neural message

7

frequency vs wavelength

frequency=brightness wavelength=color

8

rods vs cones

rods= frequency (intensity/brightness)
cones=color (wavelength)

9

pathway of visual message

receptor cell, bipolar cell, ganglion cell, optic nerve

10

problems in cones and rods

cone problems leads to color blindness
rod problems leads to night blindess

11

distribution of cones and rods

cones are concentrated in one area while rods are spread throughout eyes

12

trichromatic theory

3 types of cones detect primary colors (red, green, blue)
this theory could not explain how colors were combined like yellow

13

opponent processing theory

6 primary colors in pairs, (red and green, blue and yellow, black and white), color receptors work in opposing fashion to see pixels, rebound effect

14

process of sensation and perception (big picture)

translation, extraction, interpretation

15

extraction

breaking the message down into basic components to process

16

where do visual signals go

50% of them go to the thalamus, which separates detail , color, brightness, depth...then to go occcipital lope where feature detectors signal cells for specific info

17

interpretation

recombining all the processed information

18

Gestalt rules for organizing info

1) figure and ground(foreground and background)
2) proximity (close objects grouped)
3) similarity
4)closure (not all objects have to be fully closed)
5)continuity (brain follows smoothest path)
6) common fate

19

hearing receptor cells

in the chochlea

20

amplitude vs frequency

amp ( loudness) and frequency (pitch)

21

place theory

wave of cells activates hair cells at a certain place corresponding to frequencies... number of hair cells stimulated relates info about loudness

22

hearing problems

eardrum = amplitude (fixed with hearing aid).. receptor hair cells in cochlea fixed with implant

23

what sound is harmful

sounds exceeding 85 decibels

24

smell receptors

olfactory receptors, messages sent to the amygdala and hippocampus

25

anosmia

complete loss of smell

26

taste

gustatory cells activated by food molecules,

27

synesthesia

intermingling of senses

28

sense of touch

specialized nerve endings for warmth, cold, pain, pressure, brain is most sensitive to unexpected stimulation

29

kinesthesis

sense of body position and movement

30

vestibular sense

balance, monitors your heads position and movement

31

gate control theory

small nerve fibers conduct pain signals, large nerve fibers conduct other signals, some pain can be stopped (gated) by interneurons in spinal cord

32

restorative theory

sleep to restore the body

33

adaptive theory

sleep at night bc we adapted to it

34

sleep cycle stages and waves

90 min long,
awake=beta
drowsy=alpha
stage 1=theta
stage 2=theta and sleep spindles
stage 3=delta
stage 4=slow delta waves
REM=similar to beta

35

psychodynamic theory

manifest theory (nuts and bolts of dream)
latent content (underlying)

36

computer model theory

setting up neural networks/connections while your sleeping

37

sensory perspective

replay senses from the day

38

cognitive perspective

dream about things you think about during the day

39

hypnosis

state of increased relaxation and focus of mind, suggestibility is increased

40

narcotics

opiates; morphine, heroin

41

sedative

barbituates and alcohol

42

stimulants

caffeine, nicotine, amphetamine, cocain

43

hallocinogens

LSD,

44

cannabis

marijuana

45

compound drugs

ectasy, (stimulant and hallocinogen)
anything that falls in 2 or more categories

46

classical conditioning

one event signals other event

47

thorndikes law of effect (1895)

behavior that leads to good consequence will be strengthened and bad consequences will be weakened

48

reinforcements

increases response and behavior

49

punishment

decrease response and behavior

50

positive

presentation of stimulus/consequense

51

shaping

successive approximation in learning a new behavior

52

modeling

observe someone engaging in behavior

53

bandura ross and ross experiments

children learn from watching others

54

vacarious reinforcement

watching adults get rewarded for bad behavior

55

feature integration theory

focused attention is required to bind individual features together (color and letters for example)

56

monocular depth cues

aspects of a scene that yield info about depth when viewed with one eye

57

linear perspective

parallel lines converge as they go into the distance

58

binocular disparity

difference in retinal images of two eyes that provides info about depth

59

timbre

complexity of sound wave, explains why same loudness of flute and trumpet sound different

60

place code

high frequencies along basilar membrane

61

temporal code

registers low frequencies by the firing rate of action potential in auditory nerve

62

haptic perception

exploring environment by touching and grasping with our hands

63

referred pain

sensory info from internal and external areas converge on the same nerve cells in the spinal cord

64

phermenology

how things seem to the conscious person