test3-6,9,10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in test3-6,9,10 Deck (84):
1

memory

active mental system that encodes, stores, retrievers information

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encoding

sensory info is transformed into mental representation...requires effort

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stoarge

memories are maintained for immediate or future use

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retrieval

accessing the information

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sensory memory

holds current sensory info for a brief moment...2-3 seconds (iconic and echoic sensory memory)

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iconic sensory memory

close ur eyes you can see your notes

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echoic sensory memory

hearing something ur head immediately longer

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short term memory

working memory, info you keep in conscious awareness without further processing... 20-30 seconds.. "magic number" 7+-2 units of info

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strategies to extend time limit and capacity

repetition, chunking

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long term memory

unlimited storage, stored in a neural network.

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processes for long term memory

repetition, elaboration

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semantic network

meaningful connections so you can access it easily..... "tip of my tongue"

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explicit memory

long term memory- conscious thought, (episodic..time, places, associated with emotion and personal experience) (sematic memory..general knowledge of the world accumulated)

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implicit memory

long term memory..(procedural memory.. remembering how to do things) (priming...enhanced idnetification of objects or words bc recent exposure)

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external retrieval cues

external info encoded w original memory triggers

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internal retrieval cues

states encoded with original memory can trigger again

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amnesia

retrograde (remembering back in time..usually bc trauma)
anterograde (inability to remember new information)

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alzheimers

affects the hippocampus and acetylcholine

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normal forgetting

serial position curve- recall first and last items in a series best
decay and interference- memories are lost over time bc of new memories forming

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memory strategies

first letter technique, method of loci (placing items in location)
peg word mnemonic (words w numbers), self cues vivid imagery, and elaboration

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transience

decay of memories over time

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blocking memories

tip of the tongue

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flashbulb memories

memory for important event often changes and mashes together over time

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retrointerference

new info effects previously acquired information

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proactive interference

old info comes forward and interferes with new information

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intellegence

ability to understand the world around us, think rationally, and use resources to effectively solve problems

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IQ score

mental age/ chronological age X100
score of 100 is average, 70 is mental retardation, 130 is extreme intelligence

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Mild mental retardation

50-70 score, 85% of disabled, 6th grade skill set, self supported with assistance

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Moderate mental retardation

35-49 IQ, 10%.. 2nd grade skills, sheltered, workshops

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severe mental retardation

20-34 IQ, 3-4% , may talk but need close supervision

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profound mental retardation

below 20 IQ, 1-2%,constant aid/supervision

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Binet

1st modern intelligence test, emphasized reason and logic rather than memory

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wechsier

intelligence scale for adults and children (WAIS and WISC)
academically based, performance and verbal skills, vocab comprehension and picture arrangement, etc.

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Gardener

theory of multiple intelligence

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Logical

mathematical

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verbal- linguistic

good with words and speaking

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visual spatial

read, maps, (artists)

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interpersonal

good with people and reading them

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interpersonal

philosophy

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body-kinesthetic

body and movement

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musical

music

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naturalist

outdoor/animal

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Goleman- emotional intellegence

ability to perceive, understand, and manage own emotions
self awareness, managing emotions, motivating yourself, empathy, handling relationships

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cognitive concepts

organize into objects, events, people, ideas, etc

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cognitive prototypes

typical example of a concept (ex: bird=cardinal)

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schemas vs script & stereotypes

schema=cogntive maps for people and events
scripts=types of schema, events
stereotype=people

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heuistics

shortcuts (rules of thumb)
ex: decision rules, analogies

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availability heuristic

assuming info that is easily remembered must be correct/more likely

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representative heuristic

info that is more similar to typical events/person is more likely correct

50

phenomes

smallest unit of sound, english has about 52 phenomes
869 phenomes have been identified

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morphemes

smallest meaningful units

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syntax

order or rules for grammar

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language developement

3 mo. = cooing (making all sounds possible)
8 mo. babbling= strings of sounds
12 mo. = one word expressions..overextension
18 mo. = 2 word expressions
2-3 years= short sentences, vocab excels
4-5 yrs= full sentences, enjoys jokes

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overextension

one word applied to all (all liquids are called juice)

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nativist theories in cognitive development

language acquisition device... innate ability for grammar, automatically divide words into categories, distinguish words with string of sounds, figure out order of nouns and verbs, notice how words are change to make plural

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berko

1958- tested how kids know how to add s to noun

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language ability

age limits on ability to learn a language.. 10-11 year olds is critical mark, language expands neural network and increase cognitive ability

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prenatal development

conception=zygote,
germinal period= first 2 weeks
embryonic period=2-8 weeks
gender=6-8 weeks
fetal period= 2 months-birth

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age of viability

22-26 weeks

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postnatal reflexes

grasping, rooting (turn head), stepping, sucking, moro(curl into ball if falling)

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motor skills development

raises head when lying on stomach-1 mo
rolls over- 2-4 mo.
sits w support- 3-5 mo.
sits on own-4-8 mo.
crawl- 7 mo-1 yr
walk- 12-14 mo.

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harlow

monkey experiment forming attachments

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ainsworth

attentive mothers=secure attachment
semi-attentive=ambivalent attachment
non-attentive=avoidant attachment
trauma, abuse, neglect=disorganized-disoriented attachment

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jean piaget

children construct mental models of the world around them
use mistakes they make to correct mental models of the world

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sensory motor stage

birth-2 yrs
no object permanence

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preoperational stage

2-7 yrs, reversal (problems in reverse)
egocentrism, conservation (objects that look bigger are better)

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concrete operational

7-11 yrs, children think concretely about objects and problems, do not have abstract reasoning, have difficultly about hypothetical problems

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formal operational

12-adult, deductive reasoning(general to specific), inductive reasoning (specific to general)
systematic strategies for problem solving

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preconventional moral development

up to 9 yrs- concerned with punishments

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conventional moral development

10-15 years.. social norms and rules

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postconventional moral development

16 and up, concerned with higher moral principles

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semantic encoding

relating new info in a meaningful way to knowledge that is already stored in memory

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consolidation

process by which memories become stable in the brain... more resiliant to become disruspted

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reconsolidation

causes memories to become more vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled....then they must be consolidated again...reactivating a memory temporarily makes it vulnerable again

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retrieval induced forgetting

eyewitnesses forgot details not initially interviewed

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hippocampal amnesia

inability to imagine new experiences

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prospective memory

remembering to do things in the future

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flashbulb memory

detailed recollection of when and where we were when we heard about shocking events

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genetic dysphasia

cannot learn grammar structure despite being normally intellegent

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exemplar theory

classify new objects by comparing them to all other category members rather than prototype where you compare to sterotypical

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framing effect

people give different answers depending on how the question was worded

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sunk cost fallacy

people make decisons on what they have invested into the situation... ex: still go to a rainy gross concert bc you invested in a ticket

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fluid intellegence

ability to see abstract relationships and draw logical inferences

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crystallized intellegence

ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience