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Flashcards in Test 1 Information Deck (111)
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1
Q

London bus driver study results (study done by Jerry Morris)

A
  • men in physically active jobs suffer less coronary heart disease than comparable men in sedentary jobs
  • coronary heart disease is less severe in the conductors and strikes at a later age than it does in the drivers
2
Q

reasons for population-level changes in physical activity/ obesity

A
  • we are the first generation in human history that the majority of the population has to deliberately exercise to be healthy
  • blaming the individual alone ignores the influence of their social and physical environments
  • need to focus on changing individuals one at a time
3
Q

core assumptions of ecological models

A

1) behavior is influenced by multiple factors
2) influences interact across different levels
3) ecological models are behavior specific
4) effective behavior change requires multi-level interventions

4
Q

key features of K-state social ecological framework

A
  • multiple factors at different levels influence physical activity behaviors
  • individual interventions will not work well when the environments are not supportive
  • community interventions will not work well when individuals are not targeted
  • attention to how social groups are afforded differnts access to pa resources must be addressed in order to promote PA for all
5
Q

advantages/disadvantages of behavior change programs targeting individuals

A
  • a supportive environment is necessary but not sufficient for behavior change
  • many individuals lack the motivation and confidence to maintain PA
  • 50% of ind. who start an exercise program quit within 6 months
  • gratifying to see an immediate change, postitive impact on someones life
6
Q

what percent of adolescents DO meet the current PA recommendations?

A

18%

7
Q

What are the stages of change?

A
  1. Precontemplation
  2. contemplation
  3. preparation
  4. action
  5. maintenance
8
Q

Stage 1: Precontemplation

A
  • not currently physically active
  • no intention to change behavior in foreseeable future
  • do NOT SEE THE VALUE IN EXERCISE
9
Q

common assumptions

A
  • education is an effective strategy to promote PA
  • we can scare people into being physically active
  • you need a gym to be physically active
10
Q

factors that influence behavior

A

motivation

self-efficacy

11
Q

example of stage matched strategy : Stage 1

A

emphasize benefits and minimize costs, addresses myths unrealistic expectations

12
Q

Stage 2: Contemplation

A
  • not currently physically active, but thinking about becoming more active
  • aware of the benefits of exercise
  • intend to change behavior within the next six months
13
Q

stage 3: Preparation

A
  • doing some PA or intending to start within the next month
  • preparing for exercise
  • may be making small changes in PA levels already (taking the stairs)
  • not meeting PA guidelines
14
Q

Stage 4: action

A
  • individuals are exercising at recommended levels for health and fitness
  • requires considerable commitment of time and energy
  • at high risk of dropping out of exercise programs (started exercising within the past 6 months)
15
Q

Stage 5: maintenance

A
  • active lifestyle has been maintained for at least 6 months
  • individuals work to prevent relapse
  • typically highly confident in ability to maintain regular exercise
16
Q

true or false: individuals in stage 5 are Unlikely to return to stage 1

A

true

17
Q

true or false: movement through the stages of change are cyclical

A

true

18
Q

true or false: if individuals aren’t prepared to change, they wont benefit from traditional action oriented interventions

A

true

19
Q

true or false: individuals in latter stages are unlikely to benefit from strictly education programs

A

true

20
Q

stage 1 vs stage 2

A

see value in exercising

21
Q

stage 4 vs 5

A

improved confidence to maintain physical activity

22
Q

stage matched strategy stage 2:

A

give them options of ways to be active

have them talk to friends about group exercise

23
Q

stage matched strategy stage 3:

A

introduce gyms to them, group fitness classes, have them set times on the calendar

24
Q

stage matched strategy stage 3:

A

introduce gyms to them, group fitness classes, have them set times on the calendar

25
Q

stage matched strategy stage 4:

A

have them continue their exercise but put them in a support group or have them set up a support group to continue the process

26
Q

stage matched strategy stage 5:

A

introduce different activities for exercise, introduce a program that differs so they don’t get bored

27
Q

decisional balance chart

A

immediate positive and negative consequences and delayed pos. and neg. consequences

28
Q

outcome expectation

A

an expectation that a specific outcome will follow a given behavior

29
Q

hedonic principle

A

a person will choose to maximize a positive outcome over a negative one

30
Q

motivation

A

the fuel that drives out behavior

-it builds the foundation for doing a behavior

31
Q

true or false: expected outcomes are only positive

A

false: expected outcomes can be positive or negative

32
Q

generally ______ benefits will positively influence ones attitude toward the behavior and increase the likely hood that one will engage in the behavior

A

percieved

33
Q

when might positive outcome expectations have a negative effect on behavior?

A

when people have unrealistic expectations

“false hope syndrome”

34
Q

what are the two types of expected outcomes?

A

affective and instrumental

35
Q

affective

A
36
Q

affective

A

involve feeling states derived directly from the exercise experience
-more immediate outcomes

37
Q

instrumental

A

do not involve feeling states (improved fitness and appearance, reduced risk of chronic disease)
- more long term outcomes

38
Q

which expected outcomes are more closely related to sustained physical activity?

A

affective or more immediate outcomes

39
Q

autonomy

A

a fundamental human need to feel volitional in ones actions( I am freely choosing to engage in this behavior)
-considered crucial for long term maintenance

40
Q

intrinsic motivation

A

behavior is performed for the inherent satisfaction and the enjoyment it brings

  • no external incintives
  • provides choice
  • MORE LIKELY TO LEAD TO LASTING BEHAVIOR CHANGE
41
Q

which motivation is more likely to lead to lasting behavior change?

A

intrinsic motivation

42
Q

controlled motivation

A

feeling a pressure/demand from external forces to behave in certain way

43
Q

extrinsic motivation

A

engaging in a behavior to achieve some separable outcome

-not linked to sustained behavior over time

44
Q

extrinsic motivation

A

engaging in a behavior to achieve some separable outcome

-not linked to sustained behavior over time

45
Q

true or false: humans prefer small immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards

A

true

46
Q

true or false: our short term decisions are motivated more by emotions than logic

A

true

47
Q

what should we rebrand exercise to?

A

immediate benefits related to DAILY WELL BEING are better motivators than distant goals
-how will we enhance life today

48
Q

exercise promotion should focus on what?

A

benefits that are most compelling to individuals like feeling better or reduced stress

49
Q

feel good effects of exercise:

A

reduced stress
enhanced mood
increased energy and reduced fatigue
calm and relaxation

50
Q

_____ is one of the most consistent determinants of long term exercise adherence

A

enjoyment

51
Q

how do we enhance PA enjoyment?

A

educate individuals about how exercise will make them feel better

52
Q

results of Ekkekakis: exercise intensity and enjoyment

A

when speed was self selected, pleasure/ displeasure was NOT significantly effected
- when speed was put 10% higher, OVERWEIGHT women reported declines in pleasure

53
Q

implication for practice: Ekkekakis : exercise intensity and enjoyment

A

choose an exercise mode and intensity for an individual takes the control away from here

54
Q

true or false: exercise intensity is linearly related with pleasure?

A

false: exercise intensity is inversely related with pleasure

55
Q

results : Leininger

exercise mode/type and enjoyment

A

participants reported significant greater enjoyment after completeing a session of DDR than they did of treadmill walking
- oxygen consumption and rate of perceived exertion did not differ significantly

56
Q

implication for practice: Leininger : exercise mode/type and enjoyment

A
  • traditional types of exercise are boring or unpleasant
  • introduce individuals to a VARIETY OF NOVEL MODES OF EXERCISE to help them find something they enjoy
  • ppl may endure higher intensities for longer duration if its something they like
57
Q

results: FOCHT

exercise environment and enjoyment

A

both walking conditions elicited significant improvements in affective responses
-participants reported greatr enjoyment and intention to exercise regularly in a similar setting in the future after the outdoor walking condition

58
Q

implications for practice: focht

exercise environment and enjoyment

A
  • the environment in which one exercises can have a significant impact on his/her experience
  • encourage clients to think beyond the gym
59
Q

focht: tips for modifying environment to enhance enjoyment

A
  • get outside
  • use favorite music/tv show as a distraction
  • be active with friends
60
Q

____ is a key determinant of physical activity maintenance

A

enjoyment

61
Q

for individuals who don’t enjoy exercise, modifying the ________ may alter their perceptions

A

mode and or environment

62
Q

self efficacy

A

ones confidence in his or her capability to carry out a course of action

63
Q

what is the most consistent psychosocial determinant of physical activity behavior?

A

self-efficacy

64
Q

people with a strong sense of efficacy believe they have _____ over their health habits

A

control

65
Q

what do efficacy expectations influence?

A

the activities individuals choose to pursue

  • the effort they put toward their goals
  • expected outcomes
  • persistence to over come barriers
66
Q

what is the perfect cycle

A

exercise-succeed-believe you can succeed again

67
Q

self efficacy vs self esteem

A
  • self efficacy is highly modifiable . it fluctuates according to the circumstances and a variety of internal and external influences
  • situation specific
68
Q

when you start with “I believe I am capable of…”

what measure is this

A

measuring self-efficacy

69
Q

two types of exercise self efficacy

A

coping

task specific

70
Q

barriers or coping self efficacy

A

confidence to engage in regular exercise in the face of common barriers (adherence self-efficacy)

71
Q

examples of coping self efficacy

A
lack of time
tired
bad weather
feeling stressed
no enjoyable
72
Q

task specific self efficacy

A

confidence in ability to accomplish a specific exercise related task

  • measures specific incremental levels of difficulty
    ex: distance duration etc
73
Q

if you exercise consistently no matter what obstacles you face then its

A

coping self efficacy

74
Q

if you can jog 3+ miles with ease

A

task specific self-efficacy

75
Q

four sources of self efficacy

A
  • Mastery experiences (past performances accomplishments)
  • vicarious experience or modeling (seeing similar others succeed)
  • verbal persuasion (encouragement and feedback)
  • interpretation of physiological and psychological responses (muscle sorness, reduced stress)
76
Q

how to target mastery experiences (task self efficacy)

A

use a programs such as a couch to 5k that emphasizes gradual progression

77
Q

how to target modeling (task)

A

train with others of similar ability

78
Q

how to target persuasion (task)

A

receive clear, positive feedback from a trainer or coach

79
Q

how to target interpretation (task)

A

keep an activity log and monitor distance, pace, etc as training progresses

80
Q

efficacy building compnents

A
  • small easy tasks
  • build duration and intensity gradually
  • provide frequent verbal and written feedback
  • group exercise
  • support and encourage
81
Q

mastery example (coping)

A

set small short term goals in order to be successful early and often

82
Q

modeling example (coping)

A

join a social network where similar others share success stories

83
Q

persuasion example (coping)

A

tell fam and friends about accomplishments so they can provide encouragement

84
Q

interpretation example (coping)

A

keep an activity log and monitor enjoyment and stress before and after an exercise

85
Q

self regulation

A

strategies that an individual uses to regulate his or her goal directed behavior
-goal setting planning etc

86
Q

the use of goal setting, planning and self monitoring strongly predicts what

A

physical activity maintenance

87
Q

which goals are better process goals or outcome goals?

A

process goals because the get individuals focused on the little things that will lead to an outcome goal

88
Q

long term goals help keep _______

A

the big picture in mind

89
Q

short term goals help ______

A

stay on track

90
Q

smart goals

A
specific
measurable
action oriented
realistic
time based
91
Q

specific

A

when where and how behavior is accomplished

92
Q

measurable

A

quantifiable to allow for progress evaluation

93
Q

action oriented

A

focused on personal behavior

94
Q

realistic

A

set according to ability

attainable

95
Q

time based

A

a clear timeline for achieving / reevaluating goals

96
Q

coping planning

A

after a barrier is identified, strategies for overcoming the barrier must be developed

97
Q

______ are the strongest source of self efficacy

A

master experiences

98
Q

purpose of self monitoring

A

raises awareness of behavior or keeps the individual actively engaged in the behavior change process

99
Q

self monitoring examples

A

keep an activity log or checking off exercise on a calendar

100
Q

pedometer pros

A
increased awareness of daily activity 
simple to use
motivational tool
immediate objective feedback 
-useful for smart goal setting
101
Q

pedometer cons

A
  • only captures lower body movements
  • doesn’t provide info about intensity or duration
  • accuracy varies by model and type
  • inconvenient to wear
102
Q

relapse

A

return to an unactive lifestyle after adopting healthier habits

103
Q

lapse

A

brief slip in pa routine

104
Q

when do lapses occur?

A

when individuals aren’t able to cope effectively with high risk situations

105
Q

key intervention strategies to prevent relapse

A
  1. teach behavioral skills for coping with high risk situations
  2. foster new cognitions to increase self-efficacy and manage lapses
  3. develop a daily lifestyle that includes positive self care to achiver personal satisfaction
106
Q

successfully executing plans to manage high risk situations will enhance individuals _____

A

coping self efficacy

107
Q

point of intervention 1: high risk situation

A

external barriers

internal barriers

108
Q

point of intervention 2: lapse

A
  • lapse are a natural part of behavior change process
  • avoid abstinence violation effect
  • remember what motivates you
109
Q

point of intervention 3: improve lifestyle balnce

A
  • balance wants and needs
  • choose enjoyable pa
  • manage urges and cravings
110
Q

relapse prevention mindset

A
  • avoid all or none thinking
  • remember a small slip doesn’t mean losing all progress
  • use positive self talk
  • pa is a lifelong habit
111
Q

true or false: a supportive environment is necessary but not sufficient for individual behavior change

A

true