Test #1 things to know Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #1 things to know Deck (60):
1

Reliability

degree to which a measure is consistent

2

Test-retest reliability

consistency across time

3

Inter-rater reliability

consistency across two or more raters

4

Validity

degree to which a technique measures what it is designed to measure. Did it measure what it was supposed to?

5

Concurrent/Discriminant Validity

comparing the results of one assessment measure with the results of others

6

Predictive Validity

how well the assessment predicts what will happen in the future

7

Face Validity

whether the test items look reasonable and valid at first glance

8

Construct Validity

degree to which the item measures something unobservable

9

Standardization

Application of certain standards to ensure consistency across different measures

10

Sensorium

general awareness of their surrounding

11

Biological Factors

Genetics, Neurobiology, Physiology

12

What are genes?

Blue print
Long molecules of DNA
Double Helix structure
Located on chromosomes
-46 chromosomes in 23 pairs
-Pairs 1 – 22 = body and brain development
-Pair 23 = gender

13

Single gene determinants

include disorders such as Huntington’s disease and Phenylketonuria

14

Epigenetics

how the environment changes gene expression

15

Eric Kandel

learning affects genetic structure of cells
Activation of dormant genes, continued development in the brain (plasticity vs hardwired), Diathesis-Stress Model.

16

Diathesis

Inherited tendency to express traits/behaviors (behavior/vulnerability)

17

Critical Period

phase in the life span during which an organism has heightened sensitivity to exogenous stimuli that are compulsory for the development of a particular skill. If the organism does not receive the appropriate stimulus during this CP, it may be difficult, ultimately less successful, or even impossible, to develop dome functions later in life.

18

Sensitive Period

for a particular ability is past, the development of the brain has progressed past the point at which information can be simply absorbed

19

Frontal Lobe

Thinking and reasoning abilities, memory
Primary motor cortex
Controls impulses, social awareness

20

Temporal Lobe

HEARING, auditory corex
Sight and sound recognition, long-term memory storage
Emotions and memory

21

Parietal Lobe

Touch recognition, body sensation, self-soothing/regulating/masturbating
Primary somatosensory cortex

22

Occipital Lobe

Integrates visual input
Optic nerves travel from your eyes to your thalamus and then back to you occipital lobe

23

Locus of control

internal and external- internal when you feel that you have control of your life, and external when other people have control of your life

24

Martin Seligman

Learned Helplessness- lack of behavior by person/organism when they encounter a situation that they feel they have no control. Develop symptoms of depressions. (Kids in Atlanta trying to go back to jail for “two hots and a cot” – also LEARNED OPTIMISM

25

Stroop Color Naming Paradigm

Have someone keep time as you name the colors of the words and not the words themselves, and again while you name the words and colors together.

26

Mood

more persistent period of affect or emotionality

27

Affect

is the momentary emotional tone that accompanies what we say or do

28

Weathering

coined by public health research, people who have been affected by significant amounts of stress age faster.

29

Susto

latin american set a spell that you can literally be scared to death

30

Delirium

can be caused by a number of separate or related underlying conditions, including post-operative states, drugs and alcohol, urinary tract infections, fever, and organ failure. Elderly individuals and children are also at a higher risk for delirium than are adults.

31

What treatment site is usually recommended by a clinician when clients present a risk of harming themselves or others?

A psychiatric hospital

32

_____ measures visual-spatial and fluid reasoning

Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)

33

The Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB) consists of 22 subtests that assess

visual memory, working memory, executive function and planning, attention, verbal memory, and decision making and response control.

34

The most prevalent form of psychological disorder (except substance use disorder) is ____

anxiety disorder

35

Who is known as the founder of American psychiatry?

Benjamin Rush

36

Which method of behavioral assessment requires that the client provide information about the frequency of particular behaviors?

Behavioral Self Report

37

Which of the following disorders is characterized by disruption of normal integration of consciousness or perception?

Dissociative Dissorder

38

The tasks on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test require that the client ______

Keep a running total of a series of numbers

39

A man arrives one hour late for work every day because he is compelled to read every street sign on the road to his workplace. Which of the following components of a mental disorder is exemplified by this scenario?

Impulse Control

40

Which Greek physician developed the theory that psychological disorders are caused by imbalances in bodily fluids?

Hippocrates

41

Which of the following terms reflects the view that the people in treatment collaborate with those who treat them?

Client

42

Who among the following is a physician who developed a system of medical knowledge based on anatomical studies?

Galen

43

Joshua is overactive and aggressive most of the times. He has an unrealistic sense of superiority and his behavior lacks substantial forethought. Which clinical scale of the MMPI-2-RF indicates Joshua's condition?

Hypomanic activation

44

A treatment approach used in an inpatient psychiatric facility in which all facets of the environment are components of the treatment is referred to as

Milieu Therapy

45

The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane later became the

American Psychiatric Association.

46

Medical doctors with advanced training in treating psychological disorders are referred to as

Psychiatrists

47

The _____ of a disorder refers to the number of people who have ever had the disorder over a specified period of time

Prevalence

48

Which of the following is used by clinicians to extensively assess the functioning of individuals with multiple sclerosis?

Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test

49

_____ is an index of intelligence derived from comparing the individual's score on an intelligence test with the mean score for that individual's reference group

Deviation Intelligence Score

50

Which of the following is a somatic symptom disorder?

Illness Anxiety Disorder

51

The best way to eliminate demand characteristics is to use _____.

Double-Blind Method

52

One biological theory of panic disorder proposes that individuals with panic disorder have an excess of _____

Norepinephrine

53

According to the clinicians, which of the following refers to the ability to formulate goals, make plans, carry out those plans, and then complete the plans in an effective way?

Executive Function

54

Mental retardation falls under _____ of the DSM-IV-TR.

Axis II

55

In a _____, the same person serves as the subject in both the experimental and control conditions

Single Case Experimental Design

56

In _____ participants receive a treatment similar to the experimental treatment, but lacking the key feature of the treatment of interest.

Placebo Condition

57

A person's fear of contracting a particular disease is considered to be a case of _____.

Specific Phobia

58

Judy in Chapter 1

Blood-Injected-Phobia
•classically conditioned
Biological Factors
o Inherited overreactive sinoaortic barorelex arc
o Vasovagal syncope; heart rate and blood pressure increase
Emotional Influences
o Beliefs of blood that made her fear it
Social Factors
o Suspended from school
Developmental Factors
o Entered a critical period (evolutionary developmental stage)
• All of these interact interdependently

59

Epidemiologists

look at the prevalence and incidences of disorders

60

The Five DSM-IV Axes

I – Major disorders
II – Stable, enduring problems
III – Medical conditions (related)
IV – Psychosocial problems
V – rating of adaptive functioning