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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (29):
1

Behavioral Assessment

Measuring, observing, and systematically evaluating (rather than inferring) the client’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the actual problem situation or context.

2

Classical Categorical Approach

Classification method founded on the assumption of clear-cut differences among disorders, each with a different known cause.

3

Classification

Assignment of objects or people to categories on the basis of shared characteristics

4

Clinical Assessment

Systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder.

5

Comorbidity

Presence of two or more disorders in an individual at the same time.

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Diagnosis

Process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder.

7

Dimensional Approach

Method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather than on a binary, either-or, or all-or-none basis.

8

electroencephalogram

Measure of electrical activity patterns in the brain, taken through electrodes placed on the scalp.

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False Negative

Assessment error in which no pathology is noted (that is, test results are negative) when one is actually present.

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False Positive

Assessment error in which pathology is reported (that is, test results are positive) when none is actually present.

11

Familial Aggregation

The extent to which a disorder is found among a patient’s relatives.

12

Ideographic Strategy

Close and detailed investigation of an individual emphasizing what makes that person unique (compare with nomothetic strategy).

13

Intelligence Quotient

Score on an intelligence test estimating a person’s deviation from average test performance.

14

Labeling

Applying a name to a phenomenon or a pattern of behavior. The label may acquire negative connotations or be applied erroneously to the person rather than that person’s behaviors.

15

Mental Status Exam

Relatively coarse preliminary test of a client’s judgment, orientation to time and place, and emotional and mental state; typically conducted during an initial interview.

16

Neuroimaging

Sophisticated computer-aided procedures that allow nonintrusive examination of nervous system structure and function.

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neuropsychological testing

Assessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individual’s performance on behavioral tasks.

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Nomenclature

In a naming system or nosology, the actual labels or names that are applied. In psychopathology, these include mood disorders and eating disorders

19

Nomothetic Strategy

Identification and examination of large groups of people with the same disorder to note similarities and develop general laws (compare with idiographic strategy).

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Nosology

Classification and naming system for medical and psychological phenomena

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Personality Disorders

Enduring maladaptive patterns for relating to the environment and self, exhibited in a range of contexts that cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress.

22

Projective Tests

Psychoanalytically based measures that present ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their responses will reveal their unconscious conflicts. Such tests are inferential and lack high reliability and validity.

23

Prototypical Approach

System for categorizing disorders using both essential, defining characteristics and a range of variation on other characteristics.

24

Psychophysiological Assessment

Measurement of changes in the nervous system reflecting psychological or emotional events such as anxiety, stress, and sexual arousal.

25

Reliability

Degree to which a measurement is consistent—for example, over time or among different raters.

26

Self-monitoring

Action by which clients observe and record their own behaviors as either an assessment of a problem and its change or a treatment procedure that makes them more aware of their responses. Also called self-observation

27

Standardization

Process of establishing specific norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occasions. This includes instructions for administering the measure, evaluating its findings, and comparing these to data for large numbers of people.

28

Taxonomy

System of naming and classification (for example, of specimens) in science.

29

Validity

Degree to which a technique measures what it purports to measure.