Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (29):
Measuring, observing, and systematically evaluating (rather than inferring) the client’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the actual problem situation or context.
Classical Categorical Approach
Classification method founded on the assumption of clear-cut differences among disorders, each with a different known cause.
Assignment of objects or people to categories on the basis of shared characteristics
Systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder.
Presence of two or more disorders in an individual at the same time.
Process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder.
Method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather than on a binary, either-or, or all-or-none basis.
Measure of electrical activity patterns in the brain, taken through electrodes placed on the scalp.
Assessment error in which no pathology is noted (that is, test results are negative) when one is actually present.
Assessment error in which pathology is reported (that is, test results are positive) when none is actually present.
The extent to which a disorder is found among a patient’s relatives.
Close and detailed investigation of an individual emphasizing what makes that person unique (compare with nomothetic strategy).
Score on an intelligence test estimating a person’s deviation from average test performance.
Applying a name to a phenomenon or a pattern of behavior. The label may acquire negative connotations or be applied erroneously to the person rather than that person’s behaviors.
Mental Status Exam
Relatively coarse preliminary test of a client’s judgment, orientation to time and place, and emotional and mental state; typically conducted during an initial interview.
Sophisticated computer-aided procedures that allow nonintrusive examination of nervous system structure and function.
Assessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individual’s performance on behavioral tasks.
In a naming system or nosology, the actual labels or names that are applied. In psychopathology, these include mood disorders and eating disorders
Identification and examination of large groups of people with the same disorder to note similarities and develop general laws (compare with idiographic strategy).
Classification and naming system for medical and psychological phenomena
Enduring maladaptive patterns for relating to the environment and self, exhibited in a range of contexts that cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress.
Psychoanalytically based measures that present ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their responses will reveal their unconscious conflicts. Such tests are inferential and lack high reliability and validity.
System for categorizing disorders using both essential, defining characteristics and a range of variation on other characteristics.
Measurement of changes in the nervous system reflecting psychological or emotional events such as anxiety, stress, and sexual arousal.
Degree to which a measurement is consistent—for example, over time or among different raters.
Action by which clients observe and record their own behaviors as either an assessment of a problem and its change or a treatment procedure that makes them more aware of their responses. Also called self-observation
Process of establishing specific norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occasions. This includes instructions for administering the measure, evaluating its findings, and comparing these to data for large numbers of people.
System of naming and classification (for example, of specimens) in science.