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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (47):
1

Abnormal Behavior

A psychological dysfunction within an individual that is associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected.

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Behavior Therapy

Array of therapy methods based on the principles of behavioral and cognitive science, as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems. It considers specific behaviors rather than inferred conflicts as legitimate targets for change.

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Behavioral Model

Explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology.

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Behaviorism

Explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology.

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Castration Anxiety

In psychoanalysis, the fear in young boys that they will be mutilated genitally because of their lust for their mothers.

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Catharsis

Rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic therapy.

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Classical Reconditioning

Fundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov. An event that automatically elicits a response is paired with another stimulus event that does not (a neutral stimulus). After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itself can elicit the desired response.

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Clinical Description

Details of the combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder.

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Collective Unconscious

Accumulated wisdom of a culture collected and remembered across generations, a psychodynamic concept introduced by Carl Jung.

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Course

Pattern of development and change of a disorder over time.

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Defense Mechanism

Common patterns of behavior, often adaptive coping styles when they occur in moderation, observed in response to particular situations. In psychoanalysis, these are thought to be unconscious processes originating in the ego.

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Dream Analysis

Psychoanalytic therapy method in which dream contents are examined as symbolic of id impulses and intrapsychic conflicts.

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Ego

In psychoanalysis, the psychical entity responsible for finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy id drives.

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Ego Psychology

Derived from psychoanalysis, this theory emphasizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders to failure of the ego to manage impulses and internal conflicts. Also known as self-psychology.

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Etiology

Cause or source of a disorder.

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Exorcism

Religious ritual that attributes disordered behavior to possession by demons and seeks to treat the individual by driving the demons from the body.

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Extinction

Learning process in which a response maintained by reinforcement in operant conditioning or pairing in classical conditioning decreases when that reinforcement or pairing is removed; also the procedure of removing that reinforcement or pairing.

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Free Association

Psychoanalytic therapy technique intended to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. The patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring.

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id

In psychoanalysis, the unconscious psychical entity present at birth representing basic drives.

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Incidence

Number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific period (compare with prevalence).

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Intrapsychic

In psychoanalysis, the struggles among the id, ego, and superego.

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Conflicts Introspection

Early, nonscientific approach to the study of psychology involving systematic attempts to report thoughts and feelings that specific stimuli evoked.

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Mental Hygiene Movement

Mid-19th-century effort to improve care of the mentally disordered by informing the public of their mistreatment.

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Moral Therapy

Psychosocial approach in the 19th century that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments.

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Neurosis

Obsolete psychodynamic term for psychological disorder thought to result from unconscious conflicts and the anxiety they cause. Plural is neuroses.

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Object Relations

Modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of how children incorporate the memories and values of people who are close and important to them.

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Person-centered therapy

Therapy method in which the client, rather than the counselor, primarily directs the course of discussion, seeking self-discovery and self-responsibility.

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Phobia

Psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or situation.

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Presenting Problem

Original complaint reported by the client to the therapist. The actual treated problem may sometimes be a modification derived from the presenting problem.

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Prevalence

Number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time (compare with incidence).

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Prognosis

Predicted future development of a disorder over time.

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Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalytic assessment and therapy, which emphasizes exploration of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts, pioneered by Sigmund Freud.

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Psychoanalyst

Therapist who practices psychoanalysis after earning either an M.D. or a Ph.D. degree and receiving additional specialized postdoctoral training.

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Psychoanalytic Model

Complex and comprehensive theory originally advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks to account for the development and structure of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal behavior, based primarily on inferred inner entities and forces.

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Psychodynamic psychotherapy

Contemporary version of psychoanalysis that still emphasizes unconscious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems.

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Psychopathology

Scientific study of psychological disorders.

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Psychosexual Stages of Development

In psychoanalysis, the sequence of phases a person passes through during development. Each stage is named for the location on the body where id gratification is maximal at that time.

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Psychosocial Treatment

Treatment practices that focus on social and cultural factors (such as family experience), as well as psychological influences. These approaches include cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal methods.

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Reinforcement

In operant conditioning, consequences for behavior that strengthen it or increase its frequency. Positive reinforcement involves the contingent delivery of a desired consequence. Negative reinforcement is the contingent escape from an aversive consequence. Unwanted behaviors may result from their reinforcement or the failure to reinforce desired behaviors.

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Scientist Practitioners

Mental health professionals who are expected to apply scientific methods to their work. They must keep current in the latest research on diagnosis and treatment, they must evaluate their own methods for effectiveness, and they may generate their own research to discover new knowledge of disorders and their treatment.

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Self-actualizing

Process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences.

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Shaping

In operant conditioning, the development of a new response by reinforcing successively more similar versions of that response. Both desirable and undesirable behaviors may be learned in this manner.

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Superego

In psychoanalysis, the psychical entity representing the internalized moral standards of parents and society.

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Systematic Desensitization

Behavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation.

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Transference

Psychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients may seek to relate to the therapist as they do to important authority figures, particularly their parents.

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Unconditional Positive Regard

Acceptance by the counselor of the client’s feelings and actions without judgment or condemnation.

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Unconscious

Part of the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of the person.