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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (71)
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1
Q

Hindsight Bias

A

people feel that psychology is just “common sense” and think they knew what results would be after being told the answer

2
Q

what creates data in psychological studies

A

Psychological research is generally done with the help of HUMAN volunteers called PARTICIPANTS who provide some sort of DATA (information) pertaining to the topic of interest. At times animals are used as substitutes for human participants

3
Q

research tools to COLLECT DATA

A

include
observations, surveys (questionnaires), phycological tests, interviews, etc.

4
Q

What do physiologists study other than behaviour

A

Due to their interest in the physiological mechanisms that underlie human behavior, psychologists also need tools to investigate the activity of the BRAIN

5
Q

three main methods to study the brain

A

lesion method and electrical stimulation method
non invasive techniques

6
Q

Lesion method

A

The lesion method involves examining brains that have suffered DAMAGE we can draw conclusions about what a damaged part of the brain does by looking at what functions are IMPAIRED after damage

7
Q

Famous example of the lesion method

A

Phineas Gage, had a tamping rod go through his frontal lobe = was fine physically but major personality changes. led to the understanding that the frontal lobe is responsible for self regulation

8
Q

Electrical stimulation

A

Electrical stimulation method involves stimulating a part of the brain with a mild electrical current to activate neurons we observe what the person does/ ask what the experience to verify the function of that part of the brain

9
Q

famous example of the Electrical stimulation technique

A

case study in Montreal: epilepsy = smell of burnt toast, if we find the part of the brin linked to those two activities it can be removed
Dr. Wilder Penfield

10
Q

non-invasive techniques to study the brain

A

EEG
FMRI
PET

11
Q

EEG

A

ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY
Uses ELECTRODES placed along the surface of the scalp to record the electrical activity produced by the firing of neurons within the brains

(measures electrical activity in the brain) can help you determine when certain brain activity occurs but can’t tell you where

12
Q

FMRI

A

FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING monitors BLOOD and OXYGEN flow within the brain to see which regions are active being used as we do or think about various things. If a region is highly active, it will require greater amounts of blood/oxygen.

(shows what is active but is too slow to tell you when)

13
Q

PET

A

POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY captures images of the activity of the brain after RADIOACTIVE TRACERS have been absorbed in the bloodstream active areas will have more tracers than less active areas

Helps study the chemistry if the brain like how drugs affect the brain or detecting illnesses

14
Q

Placebo

A

a treatment that does nothing physically (eg. sugar pill)

phychological effect: you feel better because you expect to

15
Q

how do we know placebos work

A

the precuneus and PAA are activate in similar way to real meds

16
Q

can you “manipulate” placebos

A

yes!
expensive placebos work better than cheap, two work better than one, a fancy pill looks better than a plain one

17
Q

nocebo effect

A

a treatment that does nothing physically (eg. sugar pill)

phychological effect: if you think it will hurt it will

18
Q

physchological experiment

A

in a physchological experiment, we directly MANIPULATE something we think may affect behaviour and then we carefully MEASURE the outcome to see if it did have an effect.

19
Q

Dependent variable

A

the factor that is being MEASURED in the experiment

in the swearing experiment the dependent variable is level of pain

20
Q

difficulties of the dependent variable

A

the dependent variable may be difficult to measure when we examine abstract concepts such as pain love or anger

21
Q

how do we measure abstract concepts

A

scales (at least everyone is one the same scale)
questionnaires
physiological measures

22
Q

operational definition

A

a clear and detailed definition of what we are measuring. Then we can measure it as precisely as possible

23
Q

independent variable

A

the factor who’s effect is being examined (this is the MANIPULATED variable). we change the dependent variable on purpose to see what effect it will have on the depdnet variable

in the example: swearing vs not swearing

24
Q

experimental groups

A

in experiments we usually create more than one group participants

we need two groups because one set of data is not enough to draw conclusions. a second set of data is needed to compare and contrast

groups are often created through random. assignment eg flipping a coin to decide which participants will be in. the experimental or control group. in other words it us left up to chance

25
Q

experimental group

A

the group of participants that are exposed to the independent variable. in this group we expose participants to our manipulation and predict that the independent variable will have an INTERRSTING effect on the dependent variable

this is the reason for the experiment, to study of the depdnet variable will be impacted

eg; SWEARING GROUP

26
Q

Control group

A

the group of participants not exposed to the indnepeent variable that allows us to establish a baseline for comparisons. we COMPARE the results of the experimental group to see id there was a real effect on the independent variable or not.

eg; DIDN’T SWEAR

27
Q

how do we assure the most accurate results possible in psychology

A

Participants should be “blinded” meaning they are unaware of the full details of what the study hopes to prove and which group they are in experimental group or control group. As such, people are less likely to behave in ways consistent with their expectations of the study

28
Q

confederate

A

someone who is “in on it” not someone you give the cover storey to

29
Q

what did freud found

A

PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH some times called the PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH

30
Q

freud levels of conciousness

A

conscious
Preconcious
Unconscious

31
Q

Conscious

A

materials that we are WELL AWARE OF

smallest part, everyday acceptable desires eg “I am hungry”

32
Q

Preconscious

A

Material that is not the focus of conscious attention, but can easily be BROUGHT to the conscious mind

Memories, stored knowledge. You aren’t always thinking past thoughts but you can go get it eg childhood pets

33
Q

Unconscious

A

Material that is NOT AVAILABLE to the conscious

Biggest Part, Unacceptable agression and unacceptable sexual desires

34
Q

how do you make decisions according to the psychodynamic approach

A

The psychodynamic approach attempts to explain behaviors by focusing on the unconscious determinants, suggesting that our behavior is NOT ALWAYS RATIONAL

for example they way you chose who you want to marry will include rational reasons like they are smart funny or rich but out there are also other reasons (unconscious determinants) like they remind you of mom/dad

35
Q

example of a famous unconscious determinant

A

oedipus complex, freud suggests that we all have a group of largely unconscious feelings that center around the desire to possess the parent of the OPPOSITE SEX and eliminate the parent of the SAME SEX (electra complex for girls)

36
Q

Defence Mechanism

A

Freud suggested that we have forces called defence mechanisms that work Constantly behind the scenes to keep unacceptable feelings from UPSETTING US. For example, we may bottle up feelings and vanish him to the unconscious using repression

37
Q

were defines mechanisms a good thing according to Freud

A

Defence mechanisms were viewed as normal and helpful in our everyday lives, however, Freud thought that if they got out of proportion PERSONAL and MENTAL problems would occur

38
Q

uncovering the unconscious

A

psychoanalysis
dreams
freudian slip

39
Q

psychoanalysis

A

Freud proposed a treatment called PSYCHOANALYSIS in which patients TALK about their thoughts feelings, and fantasies to help unearth unconscious conflicts.

this process involves a person being placed and encouraged 2 let their mind roam freely. then the psychoanalyst uses these fragments to assemble a complete picture

40
Q

is psychoanalysis the only way to uncover the unconscious

NAME TYPES OF CONTENT

A

freud also believed in using dream analysis to gain insight into the UNCONSCIOUS

he suggests that although the actual STORYLINE of a dream, called MANIFEST CONTENT, often appears to have no meaning, with dream analysis we can figure out LATENT CONTENT, that is, the underlying meaning of the dream, possibly revealing important unconscious feelings or conflicts.

41
Q

Freudian Slip

A

Finally freud proposed that our unconscious vfeelings may just “slip out” by accident. often though as a slip of the tongue

42
Q

three parts of the psyche

A

Id
Superego
Ego

43
Q

Id

A

Operates on the “pleasure principle”. it only takes into account WHAT IT WANTS disregarding all rules of consequences

eg: go 2 party, have sex and drink beer

44
Q

Superego

A

Operates on the “moral principle”. It pushes for ethical behaviour, often UNREALISTIC.

Eg; Never go to parties go 2 bed at 6pm

45
Q

Ego

A

Operates on the “reality principle” to let us please the ID in reasonable ways. Its job is to BALANCE the needs of the Id and Superego.

Eg; ok go to party but back at 11 for the test tomorrow.

46
Q

how is the “popcorn study” related to Freud’s psychodynamic approach

A
  • People eat 53% more with big bucket

RATIONAL REASONS
- hunger
- taste

UNCONCIOUS DETERMINANTS
- Size of container

47
Q

Evaluation of Freud

A

Theories may be mostly disproved and used bad methodology
but
created space 2 discuss psychological ideas and created the vocabulary 2 discuss these ideas

48
Q

Freud conclusions

A

In sum, Freud’s psychodynamic approach fundamentally changed our view of the mind by preposing that it has more than one “LEVEL” and that our behaviour is not always rational, notions that modern psychology supports.

Freud’s idea of talking to a professional in order to help resolve our problems (psychoanalysis) revolutionized the filed of mental health

However, Freud’s ideas were based on SCIENTIFIC research and numerous specific theories (such as the oedipus complex, existence of three distinct components of the “psyche” etc) have been rejected.

49
Q

Biological approach

A

The biological approach to psychology uses knowledge about underlying physiology to explain behaviour and mental processes. Thus, the focus is on Biological Factors such as the brain, neurotransmitters, genes, hormones, etc.

50
Q

do we only use 10% of our brains

A

no, would not be evolutionary sound to have so many idle cells especially since they ‘cost’ so much energy to run

51
Q

Early example of the biological approach

A

In the early 1800s, a doctor named Franz Gall became very interested in studying a part of the brain known as the CEREBRAL CORTEX, which is the OUTER part of the brain.

In humans, the cerebral cortex is highly convoluted (wrinkled) containing many GYRI (bulges in the cortex) and SULCI (groves in the cortex). these wrinkles allow for more cortex to fit into the skull.

Gall suspected that humans bigger cortex provides added PROCESSING POWER to allow for the complex thinking that we have compared to animals

In this way certain bumps in certain locations would mean certain things eg: bump in front of the eye memory

52
Q

did phrenology prove to be true

A

No years after the popularisation of phrenology it was discovered that two areas in the left side if the cerebral cortex were responsible for particular functions

Broca ans Wernicke
Discovering the function of specific brain areas such as Broca’s an Wernicke’s area provided concrete proof that gulls ideas about phrenology or inaccurate

53
Q

Broca’s area

A

Broca’s area initiates the MOVEMENT needed for speech with damage to this area, we know what we want to say, but have a hard time actually producing the words and phrases.

makes it very laborious to talk need to take lots of brakes very slow

54
Q

Wernicke’s area

A

Wernicke’s area involved in UNDERSTANDING language with damage to this area, we have no trouble producing speech, but it is largely meaningless.

Fluid speech, intonation, blurred meaning.

55
Q

Lobes of the brain

A

Occipital
Parietal
Frontal
Temporal

56
Q

Lobe in the back of brain

A

Occipital lobe: contains the primary visual cortex, which receives and processes light information from the eyes allowing us to see

57
Q

lobe in the middle top of the brain

A

Parietal lobe: contains the primary somatosensory cortex which is responsible for processing information from the skin pressure/ temperature/ pain to allowing us touch

the somatosensory cortex has its own map of the body which is called a homunculus. the bigger a body part is on the map, the more sensitive to touch it will be. This is due to the fact that the brain is devoting extra processing power to that region of the body.

58
Q

Bottom middle lobe

A

Temporal lobe contains the primary auditory cortex, which receives and processes sound information from the ears allowing us to hear

59
Q

lobe in the front part of the brain

A

Frontal lobe contains the primary motor cortex which controls the movements of our muscles

to control and execute movement, the primary motor cortex has a homunculus similar to one in the somatosensory cortex. parts with more representation in the motor cortex are capable of very precise movements, again due to added processing power.

60
Q

which two lobes have homunculus

A

parietal lobe and frontal

61
Q

do the lobes work independently or interdependently ?

A

Mcgurk Effect: “Fa” and “Ba” same sound waves yet sound different
both these functions happen in different lobes so the lobes must work together thus making them Interdependent.

in short, although the lobes might have distinct functions, research indicates they do not work alone. each lobe also has areas or “associated cortex”that help us integrate information form other lobes

62
Q

gyri

A

bulges in cortex

63
Q

sulci

A

grooves in cortex

64
Q

how is the cerebral cortex constructed

A

the cerebra cortex is divided down the middle into thr left and right hemispheres

65
Q

how are most connections laid our in the brain

A

Most connections between the body and cerebral cortex are CONTRALATERAL, which means that they crisscross. Thus, the left side of the body is wired to the right hemisphere and the right side of the body is wired to the left hemisphere

eg: if you want to move your left hand the process will occur in the right hemisphere

66
Q

how is vision effected by our contralateral wiring

A

when staring straight ahead, processing of visual information is also contralateral

67
Q

do the two hemisphere of the brin connect

A

the ONLY point of connection bewtween the two hemispheres is the CORPUS CALLOSUM, a group of millions of axons that exchanges information across the left and right hemispheres.

68
Q

what is split brain

A

slept brain parents are people who do not have a corpus callosum. Therefore, the two halves of the cortex CANNOT COMMUNICATE with one an another

when done on monkeys there was no behaviour change but things that were seen or done by one half of the body had ro be relined by the other cine one could not tell the other. they had comnpetlyy separate memories

69
Q

how does split brain manifest in people

A

certain parts of the brain are better at different tasks so in a split btainb patient one hand might be drastically better at say solving a puzzle than the other if both hands are used at the same time they will scale like tow different people

70
Q

if a visual object is presented on the right it will be processed in …

A

the left hemisphere.

in this case split brain patients asked “what did you see?” they can easily respond to the question (no different from a “normal” individual”

71
Q

if a visual object is presented on the left it will be processed in …

A

right hemisphere

in this case when a split brain patient is asked “what did you see?” they they cannot tell us.

this is because language is predominantly in the left hemisphere. since there is no connection between the two the right hemisphere (which processed the visual information about the object, thus knows what the object is) has no access to words to express what the patient saw

they can however join tot the object with their left hand since the right hemisphere (which processed the visual information about the object, thus knows what the object is) controls the muscles in the left hand.