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1
Q

define psychology

A

psychology is the SCIENCE that studies behaviour, as well as the mental and psychological processes that underlie behaviour

2
Q

What is behaviour

A

actions and reactions that are observable

3
Q

what are mental processes

A

internal activity of the mind we cannot observe

4
Q

what are physiological processes

A

the activities of our physical bodies that make behaviour and mental processes possible

5
Q

four goals of psychology

A
  1. Describe: what is the behaviour ?in what context?
  2. Explain: why are people doing that?
  3. Predict: Who is vulnerable to this behaviour? in what situations
  4. Control/change: breaking habits, more difficult
6
Q

what are the three main types of psychologist

A

clinical, academic, applied,

7
Q

Clinical physiologists

A

DIAGNOSE and TREAT people with specific mental or behavioural problems by conducting interviews, administering psychological tests, and providing advice/therapy to help solve problems

8
Q

Academic physiologist

A

Contribute to our knowledge of psychology by conducting RESEARCH and often TEACH students as well (need ed to create a base of research)

9
Q

Applied psychology

A

Apply psychological ideas to tackle problems in the real world (eg. sport psychology; how can we promote athlete motivation / how can we create a phone that works with the way we work - user friendly

10
Q

phycology in Ancient Greece

A

behaviour is controlled by the GODS
eventually PHILOSOPHERS recognized ours minds were within our control and we could therefore STUDY them

11
Q

one PHYSCOLOGICAL question that early philosophers examined was

A

what is the nature of knowledge

12
Q

knowledge according to socrates and plato

A

knowledge was INNATE (present from birth) and we gain access through logical reasoning FULL SLATE

13
Q

knowledge according to Lock

A

TABULA RASA (blank slate) the idea that knowledge is not innate, rather it is gained through experience

14
Q

Name a second psychological problem that puzzled philosophers

A

the MIND-BODY problem

15
Q

mind body problem

A

philosophers noted the mental phenomena of the MIND appear to be so very different from the physical BODY (brain) on which they seem to depend… how can this be ?

16
Q

two camps on the mind body problem

A

dualism
monism

17
Q

dualism

A

suggest our minds and bodies seem so different because they are SEPERATE and made of TWO distinct substances
- the body: functions like a ???
- the mind: not something made of “ordinary matter”

18
Q

Descartes and the mind-body problem

A

Descartes investigated how the mind and body might be CONNECTED to allow for COMMUNICATION between them.

He saw the two connected through a system of HOLLOW NERVES, ANIMAL SPIRITS AND PINEAL BODY

19
Q

HOLLOW NERVES:

A

Network of hollow tubes through the body.

20
Q

ANIMALS SPIRITS:

A

Spirits that flow through hollow nerves to deliver messages throughout the body.

21
Q

PINEAL BODY:

A

The place in the brain where the mind and body connect.

22
Q

monism

A

suggests that the mind and body may seem different, but they are in fact one and the same. For example, proposing that the “mind” is simply “WHAT THE BRAIN DOES”

23
Q

monism vs dualism

A

Dualism: Body + Mind = me
Monism: Body = me

24
Q

were philosophers the only interested in the connection between the mind and body

A

Hippocrates (ancient greek doctor)

25
Q

How did Hippocrates think the mind and body were linked

A

MENTAL FUNCTIONING depended on a proper balance of the four “humors” of the body (blood phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile) — eg. too much black biles makes one depressed - a psychological idea

26
Q

Who established the first psychological laboratory ?

A

Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig Germany in 1879.

27
Q

Wilhelm Wundt effect on psychology

A

He moved psychology away from being just a branch of philosophy or medicine and towards being its own scientific and objective discipline, earning him the title of “father” of modern psychology.

28
Q

Mental chronometry

A

dropping a ruler unexpectedly into someone else’s hand to measure reaction time. how long do mental events take?

29
Q

Reaction Time

A

time between the presentation of something (falling ruler) and a person’s reaction to it (catching ruler).

30
Q

Edward Titchener

A

proposed an approach to studying psychology called Structuralism. He was interested in identifying the BASIC ELEMENTS of the mind (such as emotions, sensations, etc.) and understanding how they INTERACT to produce our experiences

31
Q

structuralist approach to research

A

Structuralists did research using a technique called INTROSPECTION which involved precise and controlled OBSERVATION of one’s own experience.

32
Q

William James

A

James proposed a different approach called FUNCTIONALISM. He thought that psychology should investigate the FUNCTION or PURPOSE of our experiences, not their structure.

33
Q

Functionalism

A

He viewed experience as a continuous “STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS” and felt that it was impossible to break it down into elements to study it.

34
Q

psychology time line in brief

A
  1. Socrates/Plato – Dualism (mind body different)
  2. Descartes – Dualist (connections in the body)
  3. ??? - monism (body=mind)
  4. John Lock – Tabula Rasa (blank slate)
  5. Wilhelm Wundt – scientific view of psychology (first lab)
  6. Edward Titchner – Structuralism (basic elements of the mind)
  7. William James – Functionalism (stream of consciousness)
35
Q

behavioural neuroscience

A

uses biology to study the physiological mechanisms that underline human behaviour, typically at the level of neurones and neurotransmitters

36
Q

Neurones

A

neurones are cells in the body that can “talk” to one another to COMMUNICATE information to, from, and within the brain (called neural transmission) allowing us to move, feel sensations, think, experience emotions, etc.

37
Q

Types of neurones

A

motor neurones, sensory neurones, interneurones

38
Q

Motor neurones

A

Carry information AWAY from the brain to operate MUSCLES

39
Q

Sensory neurones

A

Carry information FROM sense organs (eyes, skins, etc.) TO the brain.

40
Q

Interneurones

A

Provide CONNECTIONS between sensory, motor, or other interneurones.

41
Q

Dendrites

A

Little branches that receive communication signals from other neurones and conduct them towards the stoma

42
Q

Soma

A

signals from dendrites collect at the stoma where they are processed the Stoma reaches a “decision” as to if the neurone should “turn on” to communicate information or “stay off” and do nothing.

43
Q

Axon

A

The wire like the projection of the neurone that takes any communication signals away from the soma and towards the target of communication

44
Q

Myelin sheath

A

A fatty substance that is wrapped around the axon of some neurons. It insulates the axon and allows the communication signal to travel faster

45
Q

Nodes of Ranvier

A

Spaces in between sections of the myelin sheath. The communication signals travelling down the axon jump from node to node, increasing the speed of communication.

46
Q

Terminal Branches

A

The end portion of the axon, which branch out in different directions.

47
Q

Terminal buttons

A

Bulbs at the very end of the neuron. The terminal buttons are very close to the target, providing a junction for communication to finally occur

48
Q

How do neurones communicate

A

Neurones communicate through an electrochemical process: First, they receive and transmit ELECTRICAL signals. Then, they release CHEMICALS that reach the target of communication

Substances within the body called “IONS” have an electrical charge measured in millivolts (mV). This Charge can be positive (+) or negative (-).

Ions interact with the axon of a neuron to cause it to send off communication signals towards its target. We call this the “FIRING” of an ACTION POTENTIAL.

49
Q

Phases of the Action Potential

A
  1. Resting potential Phase
  2. Action Potential initiation phase
  3. Spreading of action potential and repolarization phase

4.Recovery period phase

50
Q

Resting Potential Phase

A

When at rest (NOT STIMULATED), the inside of the neurone has more negatively charged ions that the outside, giving it a charge -70 mV (relative to the outside)

51
Q

Action Potential Initiation phase

A

To start off an action potential, CHANNELS open to allow positively charged ions to enter the inside axon.

The movement of positive ions into the neuron causes the inside to gradually become POSITIVELY CHARGED (this process is called DEPOLARIZATION)

52
Q

Threshold level of depolarization

A

At around -55 mV (+15 mV compared to resting charge of -70), the “THRESHOLD LEVEL OF DEPOLARIZATION” has been reached and the neuron will now “FIRE”. The firing is accomplished by positive ions RUSHING into the axon, leading the charge to SPIKE to +40 mV.

53
Q

What happens if the threshold level of depolarization is not reached

A

The ALL-OR-NONE LAW dictates that if a neuron reaches the threshold level of depolarization it fires (+40 “ALL”). If it doesn’t, there will be no action potential fired (“none”, called a FAILED INITIATION).

eg. a really really light touch

54
Q

Spreading of action potential and repolarization phase

A

As one section of the axon becomes depolarized, it stimulates the next section, causing it to depolarize and “fire”.
As the process ends, the neuron REPOLARIZES. In other words, positive ions leave the the axon, restoring it to a NEGATIVELY charged state.

55
Q

Recovering period phase

A

For a short time after firing, the neuron is HYPERPOLARIZED, meaning it is EXTRA negatively charged. This prevents the neurone from firing off another action potential until their normal resting sate of -70 mV has been restored.

56
Q

chemical component of neural transmission

A

As the action potential travels the length of the axon it approaches the SYNAPSE, the area where the TERMINAL BUTTON of the neuron sending the communication signal (PRESYNAPTIC NEURON) and the DENDRITE of a neuron receiving the communication signal (POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON) meet.

The electrical signal is now converted into a chemical (NEUROTRANSMITTER) that will travel from the presynaptic to postsynaptic neuron (the action potential itself does not pass from neuron to neuron!).

57
Q

part of the synapses

A

Synaptic Vesicles
Neurotransmitters
Synaptic gap
Receptor sites

58
Q

Synaptic Vesicles

A

Spheres in the terminal button at the end of a neuron that store neurotransmitters.

59
Q

Neurotransmitters

A

“Chemical messengers” stored in a synaptic vesicles inside the terminal button that allow for the sending of communication signals from one neurone to the next.

60
Q

Synaptic Gap

A

Fluid filled gap that separates the terminal button of the presynaptic neuron from its target. Neurotransmitters flow across this gap t reach their target (neurons don’t touch one anther!).

61
Q

Receptor Sites

A

Sites on the postsynaptic neuron’s dendrites that neurotransmitters can bind to. Once a neurotransmitter has locked into a receptor site, the communication of information is finally complete.

62
Q

How do neurotransmitters work

A

There are different types of neurotransmitters and they BIND to the receptor site in a “LOCK AND KEY” manner. Meaning that only certain neurotransmitters “FIT” in each receptor site and can activate it.

63
Q

what happens when the neurotransmitter Glutamate binds to a receptor site

A

when neurotransmistter glutamate binds to a receptor sign it has an EXCITATORY EFFECT. in other words it excites the neruone making it MORE likely to fire its own action potential

64
Q

what happens when the neurotransmitter GABA binds to a receptor site

A

when neurotransmistter glutamate binds to a receptor sign it has an INHIBITORY EFFECT. in other words it excites the neruone making it LESS likely to fire its own action potential

65
Q

What happens once a communication signal is relayed

A

its broken down and eliminated from the synapse so that it does not bind to the receptor site again and again

66
Q

What is reuptake

A

Neurotransmitter gets réabsorbed by a terminal button