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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (46)
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1
Q

central idea of the gestalt approach

A

the whole is DIFFERENT than the sum of it’s parts

in other words Gestalt psychology aserts that the brain naturally organizes our experiences in their ENTIRETY rather than parts or pieces

2
Q

gestalts princeples of grouping

A

refer to how we NATURALLY group stimuli in our environment toghtether as we make sense of things as a “whole”

3
Q

list gestalt principles of grouping

A
  • proximity
  • similarity
  • closure
  • figure-ground
  • continuity
4
Q

proximity

A

The tendency to group objects that are close to one another as part of the same group, distinct from other objects that are further away

5
Q

similarity

A

the tendency to view objects that are the same shape colour or size as part of the same group
eg. sports teams distinct jerseys

6
Q

closure

A

the tendency to fill in incomplete parts of a line or image and overlook incompleteness

7
Q

figure-ground

A

tendency to view one thing as the main object in a scene (figure) and another aspect as the background (ground)

8
Q

continuity

A

the tendency to see intersecting objects as a continuous pattern (IE viewing them as single uninterrupted entities) parts heading in the same direction are perceived as a group

eg. streets continue straight through intersections

9
Q

how does the retina work

A

The retina tissue on the back of the eye captures light information and sends it towards the brain. However, it turns out that our retina has a “blind spot” we cannot detect any light information that falls in the area of the retina, thus we are actually blind in this one part of each eye.

when necessary, the higher level processes of the brain fill in visual information that the retina missed on, based on surrounding visual information.

X. Y experiment eye fills in the blue paper

10
Q

Size constancy

A

whether a familiar object is close to us thus casting a large image on the retina or far away thus casting a small image on the retina, we tend to know the size the object really is in that its size does not change as it moves relative to us.

We don’t get confused when things are further away, your brain can take into account what is close and what is far.

Although the retina may receive an image in which two nearly identical objects differ greatly in size because one is close and one is far, the brain is not fooled! The brain takes into account the relationships that exist between multiple elements (IE size and distance) and reaches a correct conclusion about how big the objects really are (size constancy)

Bechet chair and the ames room show how your mind prefers to think people are literally shrinking than go agaisnt mind consistency

11
Q

how do images form in the mind

A

size constancy and the blind spot show that motion and other visual activities much be created by the mind instead of the retina

12
Q

behaviourism

A

The approach to psychology called behaviorism stresses that to be a science, psychology must study only that which is observable ie behavior.
- behaviorists didn’t examine mental processes (thoughts emotions perceptions etc.) because they considered these things immune to measurements thus “unknowable”

13
Q

theory of operant conditioning

A

The theory of operant conditioning describes that in any particular situation, a chosen behavior is likely to be followed by a reward
if the consequences of the behavior is positive, learning occurs in the Organism will be more likely to choose that particular behavior, in that particular situation, again in the future this is called reinforcement

if by contrast the consequense is negative, the Organism will not learn to repeat the behavior this is called punishment

14
Q

Skinner

A

Skinner did very famous experiments on this subject he managed to teach pigeons math music little obstacle courses even ping pong and more all for rewards he did this thanks to the Skinner box a very controlled environment

15
Q

how do you teach opperant conditonning to creates that have no idea what you want them to do

A

to teach complex behavior through operant conditioning, we use a technique called shaping in which we reinforce responses that successfully approximate the desired response IE rewards for behaviors that get closer and closer to the behavior that you ultimately want.
oOnce the Organism has achieved one small step towards the ultimate goal rewards are then withheld until a step closer to the desired behavior is reached

16
Q

Positive reinforcement (+R)

A

The INTRODUCTION of a PLEASENT stimulus (called a reinforcer) that increases the likelihood that a behaviour will be repeated.

give treat to dog

17
Q

Positive punishment (+P)

A

The INTRODUCTION of an UNPLEASENT stimulus (called a punisher) that decreases the likelihood that a behaviour will be repeated.

choke collar

18
Q

Negative punishment (-P)

A

After a behavior a PLEASANT stimulus is REMOVED, we are less likely to repeat the behavior because it results in the loss of something that we’d like.

dog walking nicely when it pulls you stop walking

19
Q

Negative reinforcement (-R)

A

after our behavior an UNPLEASENT stimulus is REMOVED we become more likely to repeat the behavior because it makes unpleasant things go away.

dog pulling choking, dog backs up, choking stops

===o Always starts with something bad!

20
Q

notes on the meaning of positive

A

you are adding something (punishement or reward)

21
Q

notes on the meaning of negative

A

subtractive removing something (punishment or reward)

22
Q

Chart

A
23
Q

nature of reinforcers/punishers

A

it should also be noted that reinforcers/punishers can be primary which means they are natural and affect us from birth

it should also be noted that reinforcers/punishers can be secondary which means they arn’t natural thus need to be learned

24
Q

primary reinforcer

A

food even babbies want milk you dont have 2 learn this

25
Q

primary punisher

A

pain

26
Q

secondary reinforcer

A

money because you learn that you can use it to get secondary reinforcers

27
Q

secondary punisher

A

failing grade if you fail a a class you will be unhappy

28
Q

schedules of reinforcement

A

continuous reinforcement

29
Q

continuous rienforcement

A

In studying operant conditioning, Skinner had been giving out a reward every time a desired behaviour occurred (called continuous reinforcement) this is very effective, especially when teaching a new behaviour.

30
Q

intermitement reinforcement

A

due to a lack of food pellets comma one day skinner tried rewarding the desired behavior only some of the time

31
Q

Fixed ratio schedule (FR)

A

A reinforcement is scheduled to occur after a PREDICTABLE (unchanging) number of desired BEHAVIOURS.

  • Pay every 5 contsainers of blueberry instead of every blue berry
32
Q

Variable-ratio schedule (VR)

A

A reinforcement is scheduled to occur after a UNPREDICTABLE (unchanging) number of desired BEHAVIOURS.

  • box of chocolates some are gross some are good
33
Q

ratio tips

A

regardless rapid behaviours = sooner rewards

ration = behaviour/rewards

34
Q

Fixed-interval shcedule (FI)

A

after a PREDICTABLE amount of TIME has passed, the very next time the organism does the desired behaviour it is rewarded
- wait 4 hours check fridge, jello !

35
Q

variable-interval schedule (VI)

A

after an UNPREDICTABLE amount of TIME has passed, the very next time the organism does the desired behaviour it is rewarded

36
Q

fixed or variable reinforcement what is the process of losing a behaviour called

A

Behaviors learned through operant conditioning’s are subject to extinction, the process through which learned behaviors often fade away in the absence of reinforcement the partial reinforcement effect is the finding that extinction will be slower when some but not all, responses were reinforced in the past intermittent reinforcement compared to when all responses had been reinforced continuous reinforcement

Fixed schedules of reinforcement are more prone to extinction while variable schedules are more

37
Q

fixed or variable schedules

A

variable schedule are alos powerful because they lead tp a higher rate of responding
eg, pop quizz you study all the time vs scheduled tests where you will only study before the tests and take tillte breaks after each test.

38
Q

Cognitive approach founder

A

george miller

39
Q

Cognitive psychology

A

Is focused on exploring mental processes (the internal actions of the mind that are not directly observable) in order to better understand how we think, remember, process information, and solve problems.

  • many factors influence our ability to solve problems like the level of abstraction
40
Q

cognitive psychology emergences

A

This approach was emerging in the 1960s when computer scientists had just begun creating machines that seem to “think” artificial intelligence

leads to things such as the turning tests
general problem solver etc

41
Q

why do psychologists care about computers

A

psychologists were excited by the opportunity to use computers to create models that could allow them to explore how the mind way work

  • computers don’t go red they go 11000100001110 brains
42
Q

ltp

A

Representation of information is thought to be accomplished by long-term potential LTP, LTP occurs when, thought repeated communication with one another a presynaptic neuron releases neurotransmitters more effectively, and a postsynaptic neuron becomes more sensitive, increasing the strength of the connection between the two neurons

The changes in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons in large networks in our brain represents the things we know

43
Q

how do we think

A

Some aspects of our thinking operate quickly and automatically, often with little to no effort (you can instantly go oh pen instantly) other thinking processes operate more slowly, requiring more cognitive effort and attention

44
Q

metacognition

A

cognition about cognition

that is engaging in thinking about our own cognitive processes.

45
Q

present bias

A

we procrastinate because we literally think of our future sleves as a different person.

46
Q

metacognition relevance to which group

A

Metacognition is especially significant for college students, as you need to strategize on how to pay attention, avoid procrastination and continually check your own knowledge to perform in school.