Test #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #2 Deck (82):
1

the formation of simple associations between various stimuli and responses

associative learning

2

higher-level learning involving thinking, knowing, understanding, and anticipation

cognitive learning

3

anything that makes a behavior continue

reinforcer

4

events that precede a response

antecedents

5

effects that follow a response

consequences

6

a form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli (before)

classical conditioning

7

learning based on the consequences of responding (after)

operant conditioning

8

learning that occurs without obvious reinforcement and that remains unexpressed until reinforcement is provided

latent learning

9

learning that takes place mechanically, though repetition and memorization, or by learning rules

rote learning

10

learning based on insight and understanding

discovery learning

11

information returned to a person about the effects a response has had; a.k.a. knowledge of results

feedback

12

learning achieved by watching and imitating the actions of another or noting the consequences of those actions

observational learning (modeling)

13

the period in conditioning during which a response is reinforced

acquisition

14

the weakening of a conditioned response though removal of reinforcement

extinction

15

the reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction

spontaneous recovery

16

a fear that persists even when no realistic danger exists

phobia

17

reducing fear or anxiety by repeatedly exposing a person to emotional stimuli while the person is deeply relaxed

systematic desensitization

18

the device that allowed careful study of operant conditioning

Skinner Box

19

a series of actions that eventually lead to reinforcement

response chain

20

a behavior repeated because it seems to produce reinforcement, even though it is not actually unnecessary

superstitious behavior

21

gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern

shaping

22

occurs when a response is followed by a reward or other positive event

positive reinforcement

23

occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant event

negative reinforcement

24

any event that follows a response and decreases its likelihood of occurring again; the process of suppressing a response

positive punishment

25

removal of a positive reinforcer after a response is made

negative punishment (response cost)

26

the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to those that preceded operant reinforcement

operant stimulus generalization

27

the tendency to make an operant response when stimuli previously associated with reward are present and to withhold the response when stimuli associated with nonreward are present

operant stimulis discrimination

28

nonlearned reinforcers; usually those that satisfy physiological needs

primary reinforcers

29

a learned reinforcer; often one that gains reinforcing properties by association with a primary reinforcer

secondary reinforcer

30

a tangible secondary reinforcer such as money, gold stars, poker chips, and the like

token reinforcer

31

reinforcement based on receiving attention, approval, or affection from another person

social reinforcer

32

a pattern in which only a portion of all responses are reinforced

partial reinforcement

33

a pattern in which a reinforcer follows every correct response

continuous reinforcement

34

any event that follows a response and decreases its likelihood of occurring again; the process of suppressing a response

punishment

35

the active mental system for receiving, encoding, storing, organizing, altering, and retrieving information

memory

36

converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory

encoding

37

holding information in memory for later use

storage

38

recovering information from storage in memory

retrieval

39

the first, normally unconscious, stage of memory, which holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less

sensory memory

40

a mental image or visual representation

iconic memory

41

a brief continuation of sensory activity in the auditory system after a sound is heard

echoic memory

42

the memory system used to hold small amounts of information in our conscious awareness for about a dozen seconds

short-term memory

43

another name for short-term memory, especially as it is used for thinking and problem solving

working memory

44

a measure of attention and short-term memory

digit-span test

45

information bits grouped into larger units

information chunks

46

a memory that can seem accurate but is not

false memory

47

a model of memory that views it as an organized system of linked information

network model

48

process by which memories are reconstructed or expanded by starting with one memory, and then following chains of association to other, related memories

redintegration

49

long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills

procedural memory

50

that part of long-term memory containing specific factual information

declarative memory

51

a subpart of declarative memory that records impersonal knowledge about the world

semantic memory

52

a subpart of declarative memory that records personal experiences that are linked with specific times and places

episodic memory

53

the tendency to make the most errors in remembering the middle items of an ordered list

serial position effect

54

the feeling that a memory is available but not quite retrievable

tip-of-the-tongue state

55

false items included with an item to be recognized

distractors

56

learning again something that was previously learned. used to measure memory of prior learning

relearning

57

the amount of time saved when relearning information

savings score

58

a memory that a person is aware of having; a memory that is consciously retrieved

explicit memory

59

a memory that a person does not know exists; a memory that is retrieved unconsciously

implicit memory

60

facilitating the retrieval of an implicit memory by using cues to activate hidden memories

priming

61

a graph that shows the amount of information remembered after varying lengths of time

Ebbinghaus's curve of forgetting

62

failure to store sufficient information to form a useful memory

encoding failure

63

physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that take place when memories are stored

memory traces

64

the fading or weakening of memories assumed to occur when memory traces become weaker

memory decay

65

theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved

disuse

66

stimuli associated with a memory.

retrieval cues

67

retrieval may fail if retrieval cues are missing when the time comes to retrieve information

cue-dependent forgetting

68

memory influenced by one's physical state at the time of learning and at the time of retrieval. improved memory occurs when the physical states match

state-dependent learning (example: chewing gum while studying)

69

the tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories, and the reverse

interference

70

the tendency for new memories to interfere with the retrieval of old memories

retroactive interference

71

the tendency for old memories to interfere with the retrieval of newer memories

proactive interference

72

mastery of one task aids learning or performing another

positive transfer

73

mastery of one task conflicts with learning or performing another

negative transfer

74

UNCONSCIOUSLY pushing unwanted memories out of awareness

repression

75

CONSCIOUSLY putting something out of mind

suppression

76

loss of memory for events that preceded a head injury or other amnesia-causing event

retrograde amnesia (example: Jason Bourne, The Matrix)

77

loss of the ability to form or retrieve memories for events that occur after an injury or trauma

anterograde amnesia (example: 50 First Dates)

78

process by which relatively permanent memories are formed in the brain

consolidation

79

especially vivid memory created at a time of high emotion

flashbulb memory

80

the ability to retain a "projected" mental image long enough to use it as a source of information for at least 30 seconds (usually a child)

eidetic imagery

81

used to describe an uncommon memory ability called eidetic imagery

photgraphic memory

82

any kind of memory system or aid

mnemonic