Test #2 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #2 Vocab Deck (117):
1

relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience

learning

2

the formation of simple associations between various stimuli and responses

associative learning

3

higher-level learning involving thinking, knowing, understanding, and anticipation

cognitive learning

4

events that precede a response

antecedents

5

effects that follow a response

consequences

6

an innate, automatic response to a stimulus, for example, an eyeblink

reflex

7

a form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli

classical conditioning

8

learning based on the consequences of responding

operant conditioning

9

learning that occurs without obvious reinforcement and that remains unexpressed until reinforcement is provided

latent learning

10

internal images or other mental representations of an area that underlie an ability to choose alternative paths to the same goal

cognitive map

11

information returned to a person about the effects a response has had

feedback

12

any learning format that presents information in small amounts, gives immediate practice, and provides continuous feedback to learners

programmed instruction

13

learning that takes place mechanically, through repetition and memorization, or by learning rules

rote learning

14

learning based on insight and understanding

discovery learning

15

leaning achieved by watching and imitating the actions of another or noting the consequences of those actions

observational learning (modeling)

16

What are two types of associative learning?

classical conditioning and operant conditioning

17

Learning that suddenly appears when a reward or incentive for performance is given is called

latent learning

18

Psychologists use the term _____ to describe observational learning

modeling

19

a stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response

unconditioned stimulus

20

an innate reflex response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus

unconditioned response

21

a stimulus that does not evoke a response

neutral stimulus

22

a stimulus that evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus

conditioned stimulus

23

a learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus

conditioned response

24

the period in conditioning during which a response is reinforced

acquisition

25

classical conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus is used to reinforce further learning

high-order learning

26

perspective that explains learning in terms of information imparted by events in the environment

informational view

27

an anticipation concerning future events or relationships

expectancy

28

the weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement

extinction

29

the reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction

spontaneous recovery

30

stimulus generalization

the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to, but not identical to, a conditioned stimuli

31

the learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli

stimulus discrimination

32

an emotional response that has been linked to a previously nonemotional stimulus by classical conditioning

conditioned emotional response

33

reducing fear or anxiety by repeatedly exposing a person to emotional stimuli while the person is deeply relaxed

systematic desensitization

34

classical conditioning brought about by observing another person react to a particular stimulus

vicarious classical conditioning

35

the informational view says that classical conditioning is based on changes in mental ______ about the CS and US

expectancies

36

After you have acquired a conditioned response, it may be weakened by repeated _______

presentation of the CS alone

37

when a conditioned stimulus is used to reinforce the learning of a second conditioned stimulus, higher-order conditioning has occurred. True or False?

True

38

Psychologists theorize that many phobias begin when a CER generalizes to other, similar situations. True or False?

True

39

Three-year-old Josh sees a neighbor's dog chase his five-year-old sister. Now Josh is as afraid of the dog as his sister is. Josh's fear is a result of _____

vicarious conditioning

40

learning based on the consequences of responding

operant conditioning (instrumental learning)

41

responses that lead to desirable effects are repeated; those that produce undesirable results are not

law of effect

42

any effect that reliably increases the probability or frequency of responses it follows

operant reinforcer

43

an apparatus designed to study operant conditioning in animals

operant conditioning chamber (Skinner Box)

44

a behavior repeated because it seems to produce reinforcement, even though it is actually unnecessary

superstitious behavior

45

a series of actions that eventually lead to reinforcement

reponse chain

46

gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern

shaping

47

the weakening or disappearance of a nonreinforced operant response

operant extinction

48

occurs when a response is followed by a reward or other positive event

positive reinforcement

49

occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant event

negative reinforcement

50

any event that follows a response and decreases its likelihood of occurring again; the process of suppressing a response

positive punishment

51

removal of a positive reinforcer after a response is made

negative punishment (response cost)

52

stimuli present when an operant response is acquired tend to control when and where the response is made

stimulus control

53

the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to those that preceded operant reinforcement

operant stimulus generalization

54

the tendency to make an operant response when stimuli previously associated with reward are present and to withhold the response when stimuli associated with nonreward are present

operant stimulus discrimination

55

stimuli that precede rewarded and nonrewarded responses in operant conditioning

discriminative stimuli

56

responses in operant conditioning are ______ or ______, whereas those in classical conditioning are passive, _______, or _______ responses

voluntary or emitted, involuntary or elicited

57

changing the rules in small steps so than at an animal (or person) is gradually trained to respond as desired is called ______

shaping

58

extinction in operant conditioning also is subject to ______ of a response

spontaneous recovery

59

positive reinforcers increase the rate of responding, and negative reinforcers decrease it. True or False

False

60

Responding tends to occur in the presence of discriminative stimuli associated with reinforcement and tends not to occur in the presence of discriminative stimuli associated with nonreinforcement. True or False

True

61

nonlearned reinforcers; usually those that satisfy physiological needs

primary reinforcers

62

a learned reinforcer; often one that gains reinforcing properties by association with a primary reinforcer

secondary reinforcer

63

a tangible secondary reinforcer such as money, gold stars, poker chips, etc

token reinforcer

64

reinforcement based on receiving attention, approval, or affection from another person

social reinforcer

65

a pattern in which a reinforcer follows every correct response

continuous reinforcement

66

a pattern in which only a portion of all responses are reinforced

partial reinforcement

67

responses acquired with partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction

partial reinforcement effect

68

The schedule of reinforcement associated with playing slot machines and other types of gambling is?

variable ratio

69

Negative reinforcement increases responding; punishment suppresses responding. True or False

True

70

Mild punishment tends to only temporarily ______ a response so that also is reinforced

suppress

71

Three undesired side effects of punishment are 1. conditioning of fear and resentment, 2. encouragement of aggression, and 3. the learning of escape or ______ responses

avoidance

72

the active mental system for receiving, encoding, storing, organizing, altering, and retrieving information

memory

73

converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory

encoding

74

holding information in memory for later use

storage

75

recovering information from storage in memory

retrieval

76

the first, normally unconscious, stage of memory, which holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less

sensory memory

77

a mental image or visual representation

iconic memory

78

a brief continuation or sensory activity in the auditory system after a sound is heard

echoic memory

79

the memory system used to hold small amounts of information in our conscious awareness for about a dozen seconds

short-term memory

80

another name for short-term memory, especially as it is used for thinking and problem solving

working memory

81

the memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information

long-term information

82

silently repeating or mentally reviewing information to hold it in short-term memory

maintenance rehearsal

83

learned by simple repitition

rote learning

84

making memories more meaningful through processing that encodes links between new information and existing memories and knowledge, either at the time of the original encoding or on subsequent retrievals

elaborative processing

85

meaningful units of information, such as numbers, letters, words, or phrases

information bits

86

information bits grouped into larger units

information chunks

87

a memory that can seem accurate but is not

false memory

88

occurs when the origins of a memory are misremembered

source confusion

89

a model or memory that views it as an organized system of linked information

network model

90

process by which memories are reconstructed or expanded by starting with one memory and then following chains of association to other, related memories

redintegration

91

use of various cues and strategies to improve the memory of eyewitnesses

cognitive interview

92

long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills

procedural memory

93

that part of long-term memory containing specific factual information

declarative memory

94

a subpart of declarative memory that records impersonal knowledge about the world

semantic memory

95

a subpart of declarative memory that records personal experiences that are linked with specific times and places

episodic memory

96

Elaborative processing is often responsible for creating false memories. True or False?

True

97

What is a synonym for skill memory?

procedural memory

98

the feeling that a memory is available but not quite retrievable

tip-of-the-tongue state

99

the tendency to make the most errors in remembering the middle items of an ordered list

serial position effect

100

to supply or reproduce memorized information with a minimum of external cues

recall

101

an ability to correctly identify previously learned information

recognition

102

learning again something that was previously learned. used to measure memory of prior learning

relearning

103

a memory that a person is aware of having; a memory that is consciously retrieved

explicit memory

104

a memory that a person does not know exists; a memory that is retrieved unconsciously

implicit memory

105

facilitating the retrieval of an implicit memory by using cues to activate hidden memories

priming

106

failure to store sufficient information to form a useful memory

encoding failure

107

physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that take place when memories are stored

memory traces

108

the fading or weakening of memories assumed to occur when memory traces become weaker

memory decay

109

theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved

disuse

110

stimuli associated with a memory. retrieval cues usually enhance memory

retrieval cues

111

memory influenced by one's physical state at the time of learning and at the time of retrieval. improved memory occurs when the physical states match

state-dependent learning

112

the tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories, and the reverse

interference

113

the tendency for new memories to interfere with the retrieval of old memories

retroactive memories

114

the tendency for old memories to interfere with the retrieval of newer memories

proactive interference

115

mastery of one task aids learning or performing another

positive transfer

116

mastery of one task conflicts with learning or performing another

negative transfer

117

unconsciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness

repression