Test #4 Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #4 Study Guide Deck (79):
1

define psychology

the scientific study of overt behavior and mental processes

2

where does the word psychology come from?

ancient Greek roots psyche, meaning mind, and logos, meaning knowledge or study

3

what are the goals of psychology?

description, understanding, prediction, and control

4

the process of naming and classifying

description

5

when the causes of a behavior can be stated

understanding

6

an ability to accurately forecast behavior

prediction

7

altering conditions that influence behavior

control

8

define pseudopsychology

any false and scientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior

9

which type of pseudopsychology that involves the shape of the skull and how it reveals personality traits

phrenology

10

claims lines on the hand reveal personality traits and depict the future

palmistry

11

personality traits are revealed by handwriting

graphology

12

psychological research must be done ethically to protect the _____, _____, and ______ of participants

rights, dignity, and welfare

13

what are the different schools of thought?

structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, Gestalt psychology, psychoanalytic, humanistic

14

analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements

structuralism

15

how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments

functionalism

16

emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior

behaviorism

17

emphasizes the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts

Gestalt psychology

18

school of thought that emphasizes exploring unconscious conflicts

psychoanalytic

19

focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals

humanism

20

in an experiment, the condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. the experimenter chooses the values that this variable takes

independent variable

21

in an experiment, the condition (usually a behavior) that is affected by the independent variable

dependent variable

22

changes in behavior due to participants' expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect

placebo effect

23

an inactive substance given in the place of a drug in psychological research or by physicians who want to treat a complaint by suggest

placebo

24

observing behavior as it unfolds in natural settings

naturalistic observations

25

a non-experimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables

correlational study

26

an in-depth focus on all aspects of a single person

case study

27

a public polling technique used to answer psychological questions

survey

28

a sensory impression; also, the process of detecting physical energies with the sensory organs

sensation

29

the mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns

perception

30

a decrease in sensory response to an unchanging stimulus

sensory adaptation

31

giving priority to a particular incoming sensory message

selective attention

32

a misleading or misconstructed perception

illusion

33

an imaginary sensation- such as seeing, hearing, or smelling something that does not exist in the external world

hallucination

34

any relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience

learning

35

a form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli

classical conditioning

36

learning based on the consequences of responding

operant conditioning

37

events that precede a response

antecedent

38

effects that follow a response

consequences

39

Russian psychologist known for his work in classical conditioning

Ivan Pavlov

40

a stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response (example: meat powder)

unconditioned stimulus

41

an innate reflex response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus (example: reflex salivation to the meat powder)

unconditioned response

42

a stimulus that does not evoke the unconditioned response (example: bell before conditioning)

neutral stimulus

43

a stimulus that evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus (example: bell after conditioning)

conditioned stimulus

44

a learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus (example: salivation to the bell)

conditioned response

45

any event that reliably increases the probability or frequency of responses it follows

operant reinforcer

46

the active mental system for receiving, encoding, storing, organizing, altering, and retrieving information

memory

47

converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory

encoding

48

holding information in memory for later use

storage

49

recovering information from storage in memory

retrieval

50

the first, normally unconscious, stage of memory, which holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less

sensory memory

51

the memory system used to hold small amounts of information in our conscious awareness for about a dozen seconds

short-term memory (STM)

52

the memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information

long-term memory (LTM)

53

information bits grouped into larger units

information chunks

54

process by which memories are reconstructed or expanded by starting with one memory and then following chains of association to other, related memories

redintegration

55

failure to store sufficient information to form a useful memory

encoding failure

56

loss of memory for events that preceded a head injury or other amnesia-causing event

retrograde amnesia

57

loss of the ability to form or retrieve memories for events that occur after an injury or trauma

anterograde amnesia

58

internal processes that initiate, sustain, direct, and terminate activities

motivation

59

what is the motivational sequence?

need, drive, response, goal, need reduction, start over

60

an internal deficiency that may energize behavior

need

61

a steady state of body equilibrium

homeostasis

62

cyclical changes in body functions and arousal levels that vary on a schedule approximating a 24-hour day

Circadian rhythms

63

weight reduction based on changing exercise and eating habits, rather than temporary self-starvation

behavioral dieting

64

active self-starvation or a sustained loss of appetite that has psychological origins

anorexia nervosa

65

excessive eating (gorging) usually followed by self-induced vomiting and/or taking laxatives

bulimia nervosa

66

a person's unique and relatively stable patterns of thinking, emotions, and behavior

personality

67

the ability of a test to yield nearly the same score each time it is given to the same person

reliability

68

the ability of a test to measure what it purports to measure

validity

69

psychological tests that use ambiguous or unstructured stimuli

projective tests

70

a projective test that consists of 10 standardized inkblots

Rorschach Inkblot Test

71

a projective test consisting of 20 different scenes and life situations about which respondents make up stories

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

72

Freudian theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious forces and conflicts

psychoanalytic theory

73

innate biological instincts (pleasure principle)

id

74

the "executive" because it directs energies supplied by the id

ego

75

acts as a judge or censor for the thoughts and actions of the ego. called the conscience

superego

76

the process of fully developing personal potentials

self-actualization

77

innate biological instincts (pleasure principle)

id

78

the "executive" because it directs energies supplied by the id

ego

79

acts as a judge or censor for the thoughts and actions of the ego. called the conscience

superego