Test #3 vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #3 vocab Deck (78):
1

initiates, sustains, directs, and terminates activities and behavior

motivation

2

internal deficiency that may energize behavior

need

3

the psychological expression of internal needs or valued goals, for example hunger or thirst

drive

4

the target or objective of motivated behavior

goal

5

the value of a goal above and beyond its ability to fill a need

incentive value

6

a type of motive based on biological needs that must be met for survival

biological motive

7

express our needs for stimulation and information

stimulus motives

8

based on learned needs, drives, and goals

learned motives

9

a steady state of body equilibrium

homeostasis

10

cyclical changes in body functions and arousal levels that vary on a schedule approximating a 24-hour day

circadian rhythms

11

Abraham Maslow's ordering of needs, based on their presumed strength or potency

hierarchy of human needs

12

the first four levels of needs in Maslow's hierarchy; lower needs tend to be more potent than higher needs

basic needs

13

in Maslow's hierarchy, the higher-level needs associated with self-actualization

growth needs

14

needs associated with impulses for self-actualization

meta-needs

15

motivation that comes from within, rather than from external rewards; motivation based on personal enjoyment of a task or activity

intrinsic motivation

16

motivation based on obvious external rewards, obligations, or similar factors

extrinsic motivation

17

a state characterized by physiological arousal, changes in facial expression, gestures, posture, and subjective feelings

emotion

18

actions that aid attempts to survive and adapt to changing conditions

adaptive behaviors

19

alterations in heart rate, blood pressure, perspiration, and other involuntary responses

physiological changes (in emotion)

20

outward signs that an emotion is occurring

emotional expressions

21

the private, subjective experience of having an emotion

emotional feelings

22

according to Robert Plutchik's theory, the most fundamental emotions are fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, anticipation, joy, and acceptance

basic emotions

23

a low-intensity, long-lasting emotional state

mood

24

a small area at the base of the brain that regulates many aspects of motivation and emotion, especially hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior

hypothalamus

25

the proportion of body fat that tends to be maintained by changes in hunger and eating

set point (for fat)

26

an active dislike for a particular food

taste aversion

27

active self-starvation or a sustained loss of appetite that has psychological origins

anorexia nervosa

28

excessive eating (gorging) usually followed by self-induced vomiting and/or taking laxatives

bulimia nervosa

29

weight reduction based on changing exercise and eating habits, rather than temporary self-starvation

behavioral dieting

30

thirst caused by a reduction in the volume of fluids found between body cells

extracellular thirst

31

thirst triggered when fluid is drawn out of cells due to an increased concentration of salts and minerals outside the cell

intracellular thirst

32

the strength of one's motivation to engage in sexual behavior

sex drive

33

changes in the sexual drives of animals that create a desire for mating; particularly used to refer to females in heat

estrus

34

any of a number of FEMALE sex hormones

estrogen

35

any of a number of MALE sex hormones, especially testosterone

androgen

36

assumes that people prefer to maintain ideal, or comfortable, levels of arousal

arousal theory

37

a summary of the relationships among arousal, task complexity, and performance

Yerkes-Dodson law

38

high levels of arousal and worry that seriously impair test performance

test anxiety

39

learned motives acquired as part of growing up in a particular society or culture

social motives

40

the desire to excel or meet some internalized standard of excellence

need for achievement (nAch)

41

the desire to have social impact and control over others

need for power

42

personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluated; a person's desirable or undesirable qualities

character

43

a person's unique and relatively stable patterns of thinking, emotions, and behavior

personality

44

a stable, enduring quality that a person shows in most situations

personality trait

45

a style of personality defined by a group of related traits

personality type

46

a person whose attention is focused inward; a shy, reserved, self-focused person

introvert

47

a person whose attention is directed outward; a bold, outgoing person

extrovert

48

a person's perception of his or her own personality traits

self-concept

49

regarding oneself as a worthwhile person; a positive evaluation of oneself

self-esteem

50

a system of concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles used to understand and explain personality

personality theory

51

a face-to-face meeting held for the purpose of gaining information about an individual's personal history, personality traits, current psychological state, and so forth

interview (personality)

52

an interview in which conversation is informal and topics are taken up freely as they arise

unstructured interview

53

an interview that follows a prearranged plan, usually a series of planned questions

structured interview

54

the tendency to generalize a favorable or unfavorable particular impression to unrelated details of personality

halo effect

55

assessing behavior through direct surveillance

direct observation

56

a list of personality traits or aspects of behavior on which a person is rated

rating scale

57

recording the frequency of various behaviors

behavioral assessment

58

simulating real-life conditions so that a person's reactions may be directly observed

situational test

59

a paper-and-pencil test consisting of questions that reveal aspects of personality

personality questionnaire

60

a test that gives the same score when different people correct it

objective test

61

the ability of a test to yield nearly the same score each time it is given to the same person

reliability

62

the ability of a test to measure what it purports to measure

validity

63

one of the best-known and most widely used objective personality questionnaires

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)

64

psychological tests that use ambiguous or unstructured stimuli

projective tests

65

a projective test that consists of 10 standarized inkblots

Rorschach Inkblot Test

66

a projective test consisting of 20 different scenes and life situations about which respondents make up stories

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

67

a psychologist interested in classifying, analyzing, and interrelating traits to understand personality

trait theorist

68

personality traits that are shared by most members of a particular culture

common traits

69

personality traits that define a person's unique individual qualities

individual traits

70

a personality trait so basic that all of a person's activities relate to it

cardinal traits

71

the core traits that characterize an individual personality

central traits

72

traits that are inconsistent or relatively superficial

secondary traits

73

the visible or observable traits of one's personality

surface traits

74

basic underlying traits, or dimensions, of personality; each source trait is reflected in a number of surface traits

source traits (factors)

75

a statistical technique used to correlate multiple measurements and identify general underlying factors

factor analysis

76

a graph of the scores obtained on several personality traits

trait profile

77

proposes that personality has five universal dimensions

five-factor model

78

Freudian theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious forces and conflicts

psychoanalytic theory