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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (101):
1

hyphae

long filament found in fungal cells responsible for growth and taking in nutrients

2

spores

fungi produce these for reproduction

3

what are the source of antibacterial treatments?

fungi
ex. penicillin

4

yeast are...

fungi

5

how do yeast reproduce

budding process

6

protozoa are...

unicellular, eukaryotic organisms

7

protozoa are classified by

how they move

8

cilia are

short projections which aid in movement

9

flagella are

long projections anchored in the cell membrane

10

cytoplasmic streaming

cytoplasm streams into pseudopod allowing microbe to move toward food and engulf it

11

ways protozoa move

cilia
flagella
cytoplasmic streaming

12

paramecium is a

ciliated protozoa

13

euglena is a

flagellated protozoan

14

example of a photosynthetic protozoa

euglena

15

amoeba proteus

protozoan
moves using cytoplasmic streaming

16

algae

photosynthetic eukatryotic microorganism

17

algae do or do not cause disease

do not

18

spirogyra is

algae

19

what is visible in an animal cell under the light microscope

the stained nucleus and cell membrane, no other membrane bound organelles

20

What is in a TSI slant

1% lactose in slant
1% sucrose in slant
0.1% glucose in butt
proteins throughout
FeSO4
phenol red

21

what is phenol red

a pH indicator
turns yellow when acidic
red when neutral
magenta when basic

22

how do TSI slants work?

- bacteria stabbed into tube and streaked on slant
- bacteria ferment the sugars in the tube producing acid
- the acid lowers the pH of the media turning it yellow

23

yellow slant

lactose and or sucrose fermentation

24

yellow butt

glucose fermentation

25

A indicates

yellow

26

K indicates

no color change

27

yellow slant, yellow butt

AA

28

red slant, yellow butt

KA

29

red slant, red butt

KK

30

yellow slant, red butt

AK

31

what gases are usually produced in TSI slant

H2 or CO2

32

gas production is seen in TSI slant as

bubbles or cracks in the media

33

how is gas denoted?

a + after denoting the slant and butt

34

If the microbe produces H2S what happens?

the bacteria can reduce sulfate - therefore black precipitate is formed

35

order for TSI recording

- sugar fermentation in slant
- sugar fermentation in butt
- gas production
- fe precipitation

36

purpose of thioglycolate broth

determine oxygen needs of bacteria

37

what does thioglycolate broth contain

- all necessary nutrient for bacteria to grow
- reducing agent sodium thioglycolate
- color indicator to tell where oxygen is present in the broth

38

what is the color indicator in a thioglycolate broth?

methylene blue
turns blue when oxygen is present

39

As oxygen diffuses into a thioglycolate broth...

thioglycolate reduces the oxygen to water making it anaerobic

40

growth in only clear region of thioglycolate broth

obligate anaerobe

41

growth in only blue region of thioglycolate broth

obligate aerobe

42

growth throughout thioglycolate broth

facultative anaerobe

43

purpose of anaerobe jar

allow microbes to grow on nutrient agar in anaerobic condition

44

gas pack

used in anaerobe jar to produce H2 gass to keep it anaerobic

45

resazurin

used as oxygen indicator with anaerobe jar

turns red in presence of oxygen

46

anaerobe jar with growth only inside

obligate anaerobe

47

anaerobe jar with growth only outside

obligate aerobe

48

anaerobe jar with similar growth inside and outside

aerotolerant

49

anaerobe jar with more growth outside but some inside

facultative anaerobe

50

steps to focusing a microscope

- scanning lens (4x) and coarse adjustment knob to find specimen
- fine focus the sample with fine adjustment knob
- move to low power (10x)
- fine adjust
- move to medium power (40x)
- fine adjust

51

steps when using immersion oil

- move 1/2 way to 100x lens
- add immersion oil to lens
- move 100x lens all the way
- fine focus

52

how to clean and store microscope

- remove slide
- turn to scanning lens
- turn off light
- unplug and wrap cord around base
- clean oil immersion and high power lens with lens paper and cleaner
- replace cover and return to cabinate with the arm facing out

53

what to recognize in algae

green color from chloroplast
nucleus in middle of cell

54

the spore comes out of...

sporangia

55

aspergillus is

fungi

56

spirogyra is

algae

57

total magnification is determined by

objective x ocular lens

58

scanning lens

red
4x

59

low power lens

yellow
10x

60

high power lens

blue
40x

61

oil immersion lens

white
100x

62

ocular lens

10x

63

food testing involves

serial dilution along with selective and differential media to check for coliforms which are indication of fecal contamination

64

standard plate count is used

to determinehow many viable bacteria are in food samples

65

stage of standard plate count

- prepare serial dilution of sample
- all an aliquot of the dilution to a sterile petri plate
- counting number of colonies and determining CFU present for CFU/mL calculation

66

serial dilution is...

a stepwise, repeated dilution of a solution to reduce the concentration of sample

67

EMB plates

identify presence of bacteria that infect the gi tract
indicate if gram negative are present

68

what does ecoli look like on EMB plate

metallic
green

69

CFU

colony forming unit

70

where is growth in pour plate

within the agar

71

where is growth on streak plate

on top of agar

72

requires oxygen for growth

obligate aerobe

73

grows better with oxygen but can grow without

facultative anaerobe

74

doesn't grow with oxygen

obligate anaerobe

75

grows the same with or without oxygen

aerotolerant

76

what are the products of a gas pack

hydrogen and carbon dioxide

77

why do obligate anaerobes have to grow without oxygen

oxygen is toxic to it

78

what does thioglycolate do

consumes free oxygen
separates oxygen levels within tube

79

what does a positive result for glucose fermentation look like

yellow at butt

80

what does positive result for lactors and or sucrose fermentation look like

yellow at slant

81

which group of microbes is the TSI slant designed for

gram negative enteric bacilli

82

clostridium sporogene is

anaerobe

83

ecoli is

facultative anaerobe

84

b. subtilis is

aerobe

85

transformation

the uptake of naked DNA in the environment by a recipient bacterium

86

competent

able to be transformed

87

how are cells made competent

- growing to mid-log phase
-incubating cells on ice with divalent cations and with naked DNA
- heat shocking the cells and DNA at 42C

88

mid log phase is

typically around three hours after inoculation

89

CaCl in transformation

neutralize charges of DNA and bacterial cell wall to allow the DNA to go into the cell

90

transformants

cells that have taken up DNA
cells that hve been transformed

91

transformation is used to

- introduce genes of interest to bacteria
- to study location of genes on chromosome
- to understand gene regulation

92

plasmid

small circular DNA molucules
capable of autoreplication

93

pGLO

contains ampicillin resistance and GFP

94

ampr gene gene allows

the bacterium to make the beta lactamse enzyme

95

origin of replication

needed for the cells to make copies of the pasmid DNA, without it the plasmid will not be copied or passed onto daughter cells

96

ara C

a repressor protein that normally blacks the operator region in front of GFP preventing transcription of GFP

97

GFP is on when

induced
in the presence of arabinose

98

GFP is off when

repressed
no arabinose is presence

99

regulator protein that regulates GFP transcription

ara c

100

beta-lactamase

ampicillin resistance

101

EGFP

green florescent protein