Flashcards in Test 2 Review Deck (83):
A substance present in a lesser amount in a solution.
A substance present in a larger amount in a solution.
A solutions that has the max number of grams per solute that can dissolve.
A homogenous mixture that contains small particles.
A state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by a solvent. Occurs more if cooling is slow.
Forming a homogenous mixture when added together. Is capable of being mixed.
Not forming a homogenous mixture when added together. Is incapable of being mixed or blended together.
Able to be dissolved in water.
Incapable of being dissolved.
A substance that conducts an electric current in water.
A strong electrolyte will....
Dissociate completely to form ions when dissolved in water.
A weak electrolyte will...
Dissolve in water to yield largely unchanged molecules.
A substance that does. I conduct an electric current in water is?
Electrolytes can be any ionic compound that is ____ in water.
NaCl dissolved in water and will be an _____ that produces ions.
BaCl2 has 3 ions while NaCl has 2. Which will provide more electricity and effects colligative properties more?
BaCl2 with more ions
The solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid. It only affects the solubility of gases not solids or liquids.
Increasing temperature _____ solubility of gases.
Decreases. As the temp increases so does the kinetic energy. Therefore more gas particles escape into the gas phase and fewer remain in the solution.
The higher the pressure on solubility the ______ the solubility of a gas in a solvent.
This readily escapes into the vapor phase.
This does not readily escape into the vapor phase and thus has a negligible vapor pressure at a given temp.
Moles of solute/liters of solution
What is boiling point elevation?
The temperature at which the vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure.
Low vapor means that the solution must be heated to a _____ temperature to get the vapor pressure to equal the atmospheric pressure.
A liquid solution that contains a _________ solute has a higher boiling point that the solvent alone.
The amount that the boiling point elevation increases depends on what?
On the number of dissolved particles.
What is freezing point depression?
When a dissolved solute lowers the freezing point of a solvent.
A liquid solution that contains a ________ solute has a lower freezing point than the solvent alone.
The amount of freezing point depression depends on?
Depends only on the number of dissolved particles.
This contains a hydrogen atom and dissolved in water to form a hydrogen ion H+.
This contains a hydroxide and dissolved in water to form OH-
An acid is a protein donor and must contain an H atom.
A base is a proton acceptor and must contain a lone pair of electrons.
What are the values on the pH scale for acids, bases, and neutrals?
Acids less than 6
Bases greater than 7
This is a solution whose pH changed very little when acid and bases are added.
Give some examples of strong acids.
Sulfuric Acid- H2SO4
Nitric Acid- HNO3
Hydrobromic Acid- HBr
Give examples of strong bases.
Lithium hydroxide- LiOH
Sodium Hydroxide- NaOH
Potassium Hydroxide- KOH
Barium Hydroxide- Ba(OH)2
Strong acids readily ____ a proton while strong bases will _____ a proton.
List 3 properties of acids.
Reacts with metal to form H2 and a salt
What is the symbol for hydronium ion?
Arrhenius states that...
Acids are substances that produce H3O+ and a base produces OH in aqueous solutions.
Describe the relationship between pH and conductivity.
The more basic or acidic a substance is the more it dissociates into ions, therefore more conductive- so high and low pHs will be more conductive.
A weak acid plus the salt of the weak acid or a weak base plus the salt of the weak base is called a _____ solution.
What is the function of a buffer?
Resists the changes in pH when limited amounts of acid or base is added.
Give an example of a buffer solution for an acid.
Consists of a weak acid and the salt of that weak acid
This is a process by which acids and bases neutralize each other when the number of moles of the acid are equal to the number of moles of the base.
What are the three major types of radioactivity?
Give the symbol, charge, mass and penetrating capacity of alpha particles.
X symbol or 4/2He
Give the symbol, charge, mass and penetrating capacity of beta particles.
B symbol or 0/-1 e
Penetrates body tissue
Give the symbol, charge, mass and penetrating capacity of gamma particles.
The time it takes for one half of the radioactive sample to decay.
List the four principle elements that make up organic compounds and give the number of bond each typically forms.
C- 4 bonds
N- 3 bonds
O- 2 bonds
H- 1 bond
What is meant by the term functional group?
An atom or group of atoms with characteristic chemical and physical properties.
What are straight chain alkanes?
Each carbon is bound to its two neighbors and two hydrogen atoms.
Describe an alkane and how to name.
C-C single bond
-suffix -ane added
- # with first substituent the lowest number
- name substituents alphabetically
Describe how to name cycloalkanes.
Use prefix cyclo-
Use suffix -ane
- no # required for single substituents
- # more than one with 1 being the earlier letter alphabetically
Describe alkenes and how to name?
- C=C double bond
- CnH2n formula
- trigonal planar 120
- suffix -enes
What are two double bonds of alkenes called? And how do you name them?
Used as a suffix
Describe alkynes and how to name them.
-C-C triple bond
- CnH2n-2 formula
- linear 180
- suffix -yne
What is a cis organic compound?
2 CH3 groups in the same side of a double bond
What is a trans organic compound?
Two CH3 groups on the opposite side of a double bond.
What are the products of a combustion reaction?
Carbons dioxide and water.
What is another name for alkanes?
How many C’s in pentane?
How many C’s in hexane?
How many C’s in heptane?
How many C’s in octane?
How many C’s in nonane?
How many C’s in decane?
Methyl benzene- CH3
Benzene derivative phenol.
Hydroxyl benzene -OH
Benzene derivative aniline.
Amino benzene NH2
Ortho benzene is?
Meta benzene name is.
Para benzene name is
How do you name an alcohol?
Give the OH group the lowest number
The statement, the benzene ring is greatly stabilized by resonance?
The circle within the benzene structural formula contains how many electrons?
Aromatic hydrocarbons are non polar and therefore are ____ in water.