Test 2 Review Flashcards Preview

CHE 1111 > Test 2 Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 2 Review Deck (83):
1

A substance present in a lesser amount in a solution.

Solute

2

A substance present in a larger amount in a solution.

Solvent

3

A solutions that has the max number of grams per solute that can dissolve.

Saturated

4

A homogenous mixture that contains small particles.

Solution

5

A state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by a solvent. Occurs more if cooling is slow.

Supersaturated solution

6

Forming a homogenous mixture when added together. Is capable of being mixed.

Miscible

7

Not forming a homogenous mixture when added together. Is incapable of being mixed or blended together.

Immiscible

8

Able to be dissolved in water.

Soluble

9

Incapable of being dissolved.

Insoluble

10

A substance that conducts an electric current in water.

Electrolyte

11

A strong electrolyte will....

Dissociate completely to form ions when dissolved in water.

12

A weak electrolyte will...

Dissolve in water to yield largely unchanged molecules.

13

A substance that does. I conduct an electric current in water is?

Nonelectrolyte

14

Electrolytes can be any ionic compound that is ____ in water.

Soluble

15

NaCl dissolved in water and will be an _____ that produces ions.

Electrolytes

16

BaCl2 has 3 ions while NaCl has 2. Which will provide more electricity and effects colligative properties more?

BaCl2 with more ions

17

The solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid. It only affects the solubility of gases not solids or liquids.

Henry’s law

18

Increasing temperature _____ solubility of gases.

Decreases. As the temp increases so does the kinetic energy. Therefore more gas particles escape into the gas phase and fewer remain in the solution.

19

The higher the pressure on solubility the ______ the solubility of a gas in a solvent.

Higher

20

This readily escapes into the vapor phase.

Volatile solute

21

This does not readily escape into the vapor phase and thus has a negligible vapor pressure at a given temp.

Nonvolatile

22

Molarity=

Moles of solute/liters of solution

23

What is boiling point elevation?

The temperature at which the vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure.

24

Low vapor means that the solution must be heated to a _____ temperature to get the vapor pressure to equal the atmospheric pressure.

Higher

25

A liquid solution that contains a _________ solute has a higher boiling point that the solvent alone.

Nonvolatile

26

The amount that the boiling point elevation increases depends on what?

On the number of dissolved particles.

27

What is freezing point depression?

When a dissolved solute lowers the freezing point of a solvent.

28

A liquid solution that contains a ________ solute has a lower freezing point than the solvent alone.

Nonvolatile

29

The amount of freezing point depression depends on?

Depends only on the number of dissolved particles.

30

This contains a hydrogen atom and dissolved in water to form a hydrogen ion H+.

Acids

31

This contains a hydroxide and dissolved in water to form OH-

Bases

32

Bronsted-Lowry States...

An acid is a protein donor and must contain an H atom.

A base is a proton acceptor and must contain a lone pair of electrons.

33

What are the values on the pH scale for acids, bases, and neutrals?

Acids less than 6
Bases greater than 7
Neutral 7

34

This is a solution whose pH changed very little when acid and bases are added.

Buffer.

35

Give some examples of strong acids.

Hydrochloride Acid-HCl
Sulfuric Acid- H2SO4
Nitric Acid- HNO3
Hydrobromic Acid- HBr

36

Give examples of strong bases.

Lithium hydroxide- LiOH
Sodium Hydroxide- NaOH
Potassium Hydroxide- KOH
Barium Hydroxide- Ba(OH)2

37

Strong acids readily ____ a proton while strong bases will _____ a proton.

Donate
Accept

38

List 3 properties of acids.

Tastes sour
Reacts with metal to form H2 and a salt

39

What is the symbol for hydronium ion?

H3O+

40

Arrhenius states that...

Acids are substances that produce H3O+ and a base produces OH in aqueous solutions.

41

Describe the relationship between pH and conductivity.

The more basic or acidic a substance is the more it dissociates into ions, therefore more conductive- so high and low pHs will be more conductive.

42

A weak acid plus the salt of the weak acid or a weak base plus the salt of the weak base is called a _____ solution.

Buffer

43

What is the function of a buffer?

Resists the changes in pH when limited amounts of acid or base is added.

44

Give an example of a buffer solution for an acid.

Consists of a weak acid and the salt of that weak acid

45

This is a process by which acids and bases neutralize each other when the number of moles of the acid are equal to the number of moles of the base.

Titration.

46

What are the three major types of radioactivity?

Alpha
Beta
Gamma

47

Give the symbol, charge, mass and penetrating capacity of alpha particles.

X symbol or 4/2He
Positive charge
4 mass
Least penetrable

48

Give the symbol, charge, mass and penetrating capacity of beta particles.

B symbol or 0/-1 e
Negative charge
0 mass
Penetrates body tissue

49

Give the symbol, charge, mass and penetrating capacity of gamma particles.

Y symbol
No mass
No charge
Most penetrable

50

The time it takes for one half of the radioactive sample to decay.

Half life

51

List the four principle elements that make up organic compounds and give the number of bond each typically forms.

C- 4 bonds
N- 3 bonds
O- 2 bonds
H- 1 bond

52

What is meant by the term functional group?

An atom or group of atoms with characteristic chemical and physical properties.

53

What are straight chain alkanes?

Each carbon is bound to its two neighbors and two hydrogen atoms.

54

Describe an alkane and how to name.

C-C single bond
CnH2n+2

-suffix -ane added
- # with first substituent the lowest number
- name substituents alphabetically

55

Describe how to name cycloalkanes.

Use prefix cyclo-
Use suffix -ane
CnH2n
- no # required for single substituents
- # more than one with 1 being the earlier letter alphabetically

56

Describe alkenes and how to name?

- C=C double bond
- CnH2n formula
- trigonal planar 120
- suffix -enes

57

What are two double bonds of alkenes called? And how do you name them?

Dienes
Used as a suffix

58

Describe alkynes and how to name them.

-C-C triple bond
- CnH2n-2 formula
- linear 180
- suffix -yne

59

What is a cis organic compound?

2 CH3 groups in the same side of a double bond

60

What is a trans organic compound?

Two CH3 groups on the opposite side of a double bond.

61

What are the products of a combustion reaction?

Carbons dioxide and water.

62

What is another name for alkanes?

Saturated hydrocarbons

63

Methane

1 C
CH4

64

Ethane

2 C’s
CH3CH3

65

Propane

3 C’s

CH3CH2CH3

66

Butane

4 C’s
CH3CH2CH2CH3

67

How many C’s in pentane?

5

68

How many C’s in hexane?

6

69

How many C’s in heptane?

7

70

How many C’s in octane?

8

71

How many C’s in nonane?

9

72

How many C’s in decane?

10

73

Toluene

Methyl benzene- CH3

74

Benzene derivative phenol.

Hydroxyl benzene -OH

75

Benzene derivative aniline.

Amino benzene NH2

76

Ortho benzene is?

1,2

77

Meta benzene name is.

1,3

78

Para benzene name is

1,4

79

How do you name an alcohol?

Suffix -ol
Give the OH group the lowest number

80

T/F
The statement, the benzene ring is greatly stabilized by resonance?

True

81

The circle within the benzene structural formula contains how many electrons?

6

82

Aromatic hydrocarbons are non polar and therefore are ____ in water.

Insoluble

83

The most likely type of reaction for an aromatic compound is what?

Substitution