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Flashcards in Test 2 week 4 Deck (145)
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1

Tissue ____ blood in proportion to its need

controls own

2

What are the tissue needs?

- Delivery of o2 to tissues
- delivery of nutrients --> glucose, amino acids
- removal of CO2, hydorgen, and other metabolites from the tissues
- Maintenance of proper ionic concentrations in tissues
- transport various hormones and other substances to different tissues

3

Flow of blood is closely related(proportional) to _______

metabolic rate of tissues

4

What is the difference between flow and perfusion?

Flow is volume over time, while perfusion is volume over time over an amount of tissue

5

Because we do not have the ability to constantly pump the max amount to all organs at the same time...

Some organs receive constant amount of blood flow regardless of other organs (the brain), other organs change the amount they receive depending if they are active or inactive depending on the need

6

Possible regulators of acute control of local blood flow: metabolic control

- O2 demand theory
- Vasodilatory theory: as metabolism increases, certain substance conc. also increases around the tissue. These metabolisms have different effects on SMC & on endothelium that causes vasodilation

7

Oxygen demand theory

regardless if there is a decrease in O2 or increase in tissue metabolism, there will be a decrease in tissue O2 levels. This leads to relaxation, which leads to vasodilation, which leads to an increase in blood flow

8

Decrease in O2, is sensed by...

precapillary sphincters, which causes then to relax and vasodilate

9

As oxygyen saturation increases, _____decreases

Blood flow

10

No decrease in O2 levels leads to...

sphincter contraction, and decreased blood flow. Blood is then shunted to other areas that needs it

11

What is reactive hyperemia?

The blocking of blood supply for a period of time causes build-up of waste product metabolites that have vasodilatory properties.

Increase in blood flow will be proportional to time of ischemia & how strong it is.

12

What is active hyperemia?

An increase in local metabolism causes rapid diminishing of nutrients and increased release of vasodilatory substances

13

What does the increased release of vasodilatory substances do?

it stimulates endothelium & SMC to vasodilate, hence increasing blood flow

14

As activity levels increase, so does _____

blood flow. Once activity returns to normal, so will blood flow

15

What are the two components of metabolic autoregulation?

Intrinsic and extrinsic components

16

Intrinsic factors that increase the activity of the muscle produces...

vasodilator metabolites that will act on microcirculation to produce vasodilation.

17

Where is the most resistance found?

In the arterioles and microcirculation

18

What does flow-induced dilation in the extrinsic component do?

It increases blood flow & will further increase dilation upstream

19

Flow- mediation dilation is a good indicator of...?

Arterial & endothelial health

20

How is flow mediation dilation does

Use a probe to find the brachial artery, get a baseline video & use it to get the average diameter of the artery, wrap a cuff around it & inflate it to around 200mmHg & leave it for 5 mins, let g of the cuff, resulting in great increase of blood flow & the dilation of the arteries

21

What type of hyperemia is flow mediation dilation?

Reactive hyperemia

22

What does the pressure curves in flow mediation dilation tell?

How fast the blood is flowing and how much blood is flowing. This tells us the function and state of the microcirculaton.

23

Multiple signaling pathways that determines vascular tone

When blood flow increases, it causes shear stress pulling on the endothelium.

24

What does shear stress and pulling of the endothelium do?

1. stimulates the endothelial cells to open K channels. (hyperpolarizes the cell membrane) At the same time, muscle contraction also stimulates K channels on the SMC to hyperpolarize the SMC membrane, because of metabolites released from muscle & gap junction.

2. Hyperpolarization transfers to neighboring SMC & endothelial cells via gap junctions.

3. Hyperpolarization inhibits Ca channels, decrease Ca intracellular conc. in SMC. Contraction depends on Ca.

4. shear stress on endothelial, stimulates vasodilators (NO), stimulates muscle to relax further.

25

Exercise wants to vasoconstrict, but the ____ process negotiates this & stronger signals

shear stress and pulling of the endothelium

26

Phosphorylation _____ Ca

decreases

27

What is the role of endothelial cells?

- Vasoconstrictor: norepinephrine increases muscle tone in muscles, and the addition of acetylcholine decreases it

- A destroyed endothelium occurs when acetylcholine is added

28

What is the role of NO

it is an endothelial relaxing factor.

29

Endothelial dysfunction is a precursor to...

vascular disease.

30

Acetylcholine is a endothelium ____ factor

dependent relaxing