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Flashcards in Test 3 week 6 Deck (273)
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The blood is composed of __ and ___

Cells and plasma


What is plasma?

Blood without cells


Cells make up ___ of our blood. Most of the cells are ___. Less than 1% are ___, and ____

Cells make up about 45% of our blood. Most of the cells are RBCs. Less than 1% are WBCs, and platelets


All blood cells have limited life spans, meaning that our bodies ____

need to continuously produce our blood cells, whether they are RBCs or WBCs


What are the 3 main blood cell types, where are they generated from and where are they found

RBCs, WBCs, and platelets.

Generated from a common stem cell in the bone marrow and are found in the blood


What are WBCs mainly responsible for?

Mainly responsible for immunity responses and attacking different types of infections. They induce immune response


What are the 3 main types of WBCs?

- Granulocytes(can see granules under the microscope?
- Monocytes
- Lymphomatics


What are the types of granulocytes?

- Neutrophil (poly morphonuclear leucocytes-bcos they appear to be multi nuclei)
- Basophil
- Eosinophil


Types of lymphocytes

- B lymphocytes
- T lymphcytes


What is the main function of RBCs?

To transport O2 and CO2 using hemoglobin


What is the main function of neutrophil?

Phagocytose and destroy invading bacteria


What is the main function of eosinophil?

Destroy larger parasites and modulate allergic inflammatory responses


What is the main function of basophils?

Release histamine (and serotonin in some species) in certain immune reactions


What is the main function of monocytes?

Become tissue macrophages, which phagocytose and digest invading microorganisms and foreign bodies as well as damaged senescent cells


What is the main function of B lymphocytes?

Make antibodies


What is the main function of T lymphocytes?

Kill virus-infecting cells and regulate activities of other leucocytes


What is the main function of natural killer (NK) cells?

kill virus- infected cells and some tumor cells


What is the main function of platelets?

Initiate blood clotting


Unlike ___, ___ stays within the vascular system

Unlike WBCs, RBCs stays within the vascular system


Why would WBCs not be in the vascular system?

If there's inflammation or some kind of infection in the body, WBCs squeeze out through the capillaries into the interstitial space to attempt to attack any kind of foreign particles or microbes


___ lack a nucleus, ER, mitochondria, and ribosomes. Causing them to not be able to grow or divide



What is the main source of ATP generation of RBCs?

Anaerobic glycosis


What are the 2 cells in the body that rely heavily on glucose and have alot of trouble oxidizing anything else?

RBCs and brain cells


A developing RBC is called a ____. Once the RBC leaves it, its called a ____, and in it are the mitochondria and everything else that the RBC leaves behind

- Erythroblast
- Reticulocyte


Once RBCs are worn out what happens to them?

They are phagocytosed and digested by macrophages in the liver and spleen


What happens to hemoglobin transport if its not kept inside the RBC?

Hemoglobin can leak through capillary membranes into interstitial spaces or glomerular filtrate. The concentration will decrease if there's a continuous leak. (RBC prevents this)


____ contain large quantities of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which aids in the transport of CO2

Erythrocytes/ RBCs


What are the 3 forms that CO2 is transported?

- About 7% is dissolved in plasma
- 23% diffuses into the blood, combines with hemoglobin and is transported to the left.
- CO2 combines w/water and because the RBC has
the enzyme (carbonic anhydrase), this reaction can be very efficient and very fast in the RBC. CO2 is formed with H2O to form carbonic acid which is then going to
dissociate into bicarbonate and protons. bicarbonate is a very good buffer system
for CO2. bicarbonate (HCO3-) travels through the plasma once we reach the lungs
this reaction go into the reverse direction. which bicarbonate will then give us co2 and co2 is going to diffuse out into the alveoli and through expiration (out into the outside air) so overall, RBCs are imp for c02 transport as well because of the presence of carbonic anhydrase and hemoglobin we can transport 93% of CO2. the remaining 7% is dissolved in the plasma.


Why is the biconcave disk shape of an RBC important?

It is optimal for the RBC to be able to squeeze through tight and narrow passages in the circulation


Old RBCs become too fragile and are frequently ruptured as they squeeze through the red pulp of this organ. Removal of this organ will result in an abnormally high amount of old RBC circulating in the body