Flashcards in Test 4 week 9 Deck (412)
What are the functions of the kidney?
- Excretion of waste product and foreign chemicals
- Regulation of water and electrolyte balances
- Regulation of body fluid osmolarity and electrolyte concentration
- Regulation of BP
- Acid-base balance
- Regulation of RBC production
- Acts as an endocrine gland
What do electrolyte concentrations determine?
Electrolyte concentrations determines the body fluid osmolarity
____ competes with the liver in terms of glucose production
What is at the apex of the renal pyramid?
What are the 3 main regions of the kidney?
What is the cortex of the kidney?
The outer region, just under the capsule
What is the medulla of the kidney?
The central region. Divided into an outer and inner medulla
What is the papilla of the kidney?
The innermost tip of the inner medulla
____ is where you have nephrons and they would dump into the renal pelvis, therefore collecting ducts in the ureters
Kidneys ____ regenerate new nephrons and after the age of 40, the number of functioning nephrons starts to decrease by 10% every 10 years
Kidneys *cannot* regenerate new nephrons and after the age of 40, the number of functioning nephrons starts to decrease by 10% every 10 years
20-30% of nephrons have glomeruli deep in the renal cortex near the medulla and are called ____
20-30% of nephrons have glomeruli deep in the renal cortex near the medulla and are called *juxtamedullary nephrons*
70-80% of nephrons have glomeruli located in the outer cortex and are called ___
70-80% of nephrons have glomeruli located in the outer cortex and are called *cortical nephrons*
____ is important for the concentration of urine
What are the 4 processes that sum up the formation of urine?
- Glomerular filtration
What happens in the glomerular filtration step of urine formation?
Blood that comes through the afferent arteriole is filtered and filters out of the glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule
What happens in the reabsorption step of urine formation?
The substances the body wants will reabsorb back into the peritubular capillaries and then the body holds on to them
What happens in the secretion step of urine formation?
Occasionally the body wants to excrete to further secrete some of the substances and then there'll be some substances moving out from the peritubular capillaries into the collecting tubules
How is urinary excretion rate determined?
Filtration - reabsorption + secretion
How are the peritubular capillaries formed?
Blood comes in from the afferent arteriole which will move through the glomerulus and will come out from the efferent arteriole then it will go around the collecting tubules to form the peritubular capillaries
How does the renal system handle creatinine?
It filters it only. There is no reabsorption or secretion
How does the renal system handle Na and Cl?
It only filters it and partially reabsorbs. Reabsorbs some and excrete some
How does the renal system handle AA and glucose?
It filters it and completely reabsorbs it
How does the renal system handle organic acids and bases?
It filters it and secretes it. There is no reabsorption
____ is the first step in urine formation
In glomerular filtration, blood coming in from the ____ arteriole is filtered and exits via the ____ arteriole
In glomerular filtration, blood coming in from the *afferent* arteriole is filtered and exits via the *efferent* arteriole
Most of the filtrate that exits the glomerular filtration is _____
What is GFR and what does it depend on?
GFR: Glomerular Filtration Rate
Depends on the rate of blood flow
What is RPF?
Rate of plasma flow
Filtration fraction is equal to...?