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Flashcards in Test 4 week 9 Deck (412)
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1

What are the functions of the kidney?

- Excretion of waste product and foreign chemicals
- Regulation of water and electrolyte balances
- Regulation of body fluid osmolarity and electrolyte concentration
- Regulation of BP
- Acid-base balance
- Regulation of RBC production
- Acts as an endocrine gland
- Gluconeogenesis

2

What do electrolyte concentrations determine?

Electrolyte concentrations determines the body fluid osmolarity

3

____ competes with the liver in terms of glucose production

Gluconeogenesis

4

What is at the apex of the renal pyramid?

Papilla

5

What are the 3 main regions of the kidney?

- Cortex
- Medulla
- Papilla

6

What is the cortex of the kidney?

The outer region, just under the capsule

7

What is the medulla of the kidney?

The central region. Divided into an outer and inner medulla

8

What is the papilla of the kidney?

The innermost tip of the inner medulla

9

____ is where you have nephrons and they would dump into the renal pelvis, therefore collecting ducts in the ureters

Renal pyramids

10

Kidneys ____ regenerate new nephrons and after the age of 40, the number of functioning nephrons starts to decrease by 10% every 10 years

Kidneys *cannot* regenerate new nephrons and after the age of 40, the number of functioning nephrons starts to decrease by 10% every 10 years

11

20-30% of nephrons have glomeruli deep in the renal cortex near the medulla and are called ____

20-30% of nephrons have glomeruli deep in the renal cortex near the medulla and are called *juxtamedullary nephrons*

12

70-80% of nephrons have glomeruli located in the outer cortex and are called ___

70-80% of nephrons have glomeruli located in the outer cortex and are called *cortical nephrons*

13

____ is important for the concentration of urine

Vasa recta

14

What are the 4 processes that sum up the formation of urine?

- Glomerular filtration
- Reabsorption
- Secretion
- Excretion

15

What happens in the glomerular filtration step of urine formation?

Blood that comes through the afferent arteriole is filtered and filters out of the glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule

16

What happens in the reabsorption step of urine formation?

The substances the body wants will reabsorb back into the peritubular capillaries and then the body holds on to them

17

What happens in the secretion step of urine formation?

Occasionally the body wants to excrete to further secrete some of the substances and then there'll be some substances moving out from the peritubular capillaries into the collecting tubules

18

How is urinary excretion rate determined?

Filtration - reabsorption + secretion

19

How are the peritubular capillaries formed?

Blood comes in from the afferent arteriole which will move through the glomerulus and will come out from the efferent arteriole then it will go around the collecting tubules to form the peritubular capillaries

20

How does the renal system handle creatinine?

It filters it only. There is no reabsorption or secretion

21

How does the renal system handle Na and Cl?

It only filters it and partially reabsorbs. Reabsorbs some and excrete some

22

How does the renal system handle AA and glucose?

It filters it and completely reabsorbs it

23

How does the renal system handle organic acids and bases?

It filters it and secretes it. There is no reabsorption

24

____ is the first step in urine formation

Glomerular filtration

25

In glomerular filtration, blood coming in from the ____ arteriole is filtered and exits via the ____ arteriole

In glomerular filtration, blood coming in from the *afferent* arteriole is filtered and exits via the *efferent* arteriole

26

Most of the filtrate that exits the glomerular filtration is _____

Reabsorbed

27

What is GFR and what does it depend on?

GFR: Glomerular Filtration Rate

Depends on the rate of blood flow

28

What is RPF?

Rate of plasma flow

29

Filtration fraction is equal to...?

GFR/RPF

30

____ are normally not filtered and if they are it indicates a sort of disease

Proteins