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Flashcards in test 3 Deck (75):
1

abnormally small pinna or auricle

microtia

2

the closing off of the external auditory canal; may experience CHL

atresia

3

the narrowing of the EAC;
may also experience a conductive hearing loss

stenosis

4

inflammation of the outer ear; painful to the patient
bacterial, viral, or fungal; swimmers ear

external otisis

5

symptoms of otitis

hearing loss, otorrhea, swelling (edema), redness (erythema), bad smell

6

cancerous growth on the outer portion of the ear. if it is not treated it can spread to other parts of the body

squamous cell carcinoma

7

what causes squamous cells

UV exposure

8

what is her daughter's favorite color?

rainbow

9

common growth that is found on the pinna, thought to be caused by long term exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunlight ; can be very locally destructive and aggressive and spreads rapidly

basal cell carcinoma

10

inflammation of the middle ear space with fluid WITHOUT infection (bacteria)
- typically will proceed some type of upper respiratory infection

serous otitis media

11

inflammation of the middle ear space WITH infection
-typically proceeded by some type of upper respiratory infection
- pain w/ fever, 10-14 days

acute otitis media

12

inflammation of the middle ear space with bacteria/ infection present over an extended period of time
- harder to treat and can be destructive to the surrounding tissue
chronic perforations, redness, drainage, otorrhea,

chronic otitis media

13

accumulation of debris developed from perforations of the tympanic membrane
- seen as a white mass behind or coming through the TM
- can disarticulate the ossicles if the cholesteatoma grows large enough and can possible cause a CHL

Cholesteatoma

14

abnormal bone growth in the middle ear which form a spongy bone in the labyrinthine capsule and the footplate of the stapes
- the mobility of the stapes is impaired and a gradual conductive hearing loss with be noticed
-high occurrence in females

otosclerosis

15

-vascular growths that come from gloms bodies
-if they rupture you can bleed to death
-Unilateral pulsating tinnitus ( hear their own heartbeat)
-CHL and possibly SNHL
slow growth

glomus tumor

16

occurs with repeated exposure to loud noise, can be due to recreational or occupational noise
- high frequencies are affected first
- noise notch around 4000 Hz is typically seen
- almost always bilateral
affects the outer hair cells within the cochlea

noise induced hearing loss
NIHL

17

small opening/ hole in the cochlea causing a mix of the perilymph and endolymph (fluids in the ear)
- patient may experience dizziness, true vertigo, typanometry w/ normal results, flat hearing loss ( fluctuating ) sudden

perilymphatic fistula

18

also called endolymphatic hydrous- increase in endolymph production within the cochlea

meniere's disease

19

4 characteristics of meniere's disease

-temporary (fluctuating) hearing loss
-unilateral low frequency "roaring" tinnitus
-episodic vertigo
-aural fullness

20

-hearing loss due to taking certain ototoxic mediations
- has the potential to affect ones hearing, tinnitus, equilibrium
-typically will see high frequency bilateral SNHL on the audiogram
-mycin or micin drugs

ototoxicity

21

tumor that affects the VIIIth nerve (auditory nerve)
- patients complaints will be unilateral (red flag)
--unilateral hearing loss
-- unilateral tinnitus
--dizziness, loss of balance, lightheadedness

acoustic neuroma/ vestibular schwannoma

22

what is the primary goal of school based audiology services?

to level the playing field by minimizing the impact of hearing impairment on the communication and learning so that children who are deaf and hard of hearing have the same learning opportunities as their hearing peers

23

provided services that adhere to the school based audiology

identify and assess
provide appropriate habilitation
provide counseling
create and administer programs
train teachers and staff

24

this law guaranteed a free and appropriate public education for all children with disabilities between the ages of 3-18, in the least restrictive environment possible

education for all handicapped children act of 1975 EHA

25

children would receive special education and supporting services at public expense and under public supervision

FAPE

26

expanded the age range of children with disabilities to be covered from birth to age of 21; revised in 2004 to align with the No child left behind act of 2001

individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA)

27

state and local agencies must actively seek and identify children with special needs

identification

28

key provisions of IDEA

identification
evaluation
individualized education plan
least restrictive environment
private school
early intervention
due process
funds
records

29

federal mandated document that identifies goals and objectives that address the educational needs of a student aged 3-21 years who has a disability

IEP individualized education plan

30

legal document under the rehabilitation ACT of 1973
-- developed to ensure that a child who has a disability identified under the law and is attention elementary or secondary educational receives accommodations that will ensure their academic success and access to the learning environment

504 plan

31

who is eligible for the 504 plan??

students with physical or emotional disability, or who has an impairment that restricts one or more major life activities

32

IEPS may include but are not limited to

classroom listening assessment
classroom acoustics
assisted technology and devices
self advocacy and habilitation
resources for the general management of children with hearing impairment in the classroom

33

special education program under IDEA which requires schools to seek out and identify children birth to 21 years of age with disabilities

child find

34

the two primary methods that schools may utilize to deliver audiology services

-employment directly by the local education agency LEA responsible for providing special education and related services
- contract with an individual, organization, or agency for specified audiology services

35

classroom observations

seating arrangements
classroom acoustics
how a teacher manages instruction
expectations for student participation
management of student behavior

36

3 measurements that influence classroom acoustics

distance from the teacher
signal to noise ratio
reverberation time

37

marks the max. point at which the listener receives the speech signal from the talker directly w/o addition sound reflections from room surfaces

critical distance

38

the difference in dB between the intended signal and all other unwanted sounds

signal to noise ratio

39

the signal to noise ration that a normal hearing can still understand speech is between

0dB and +5dB

40

children with hearing impairment generally require a __________signal to noise ratio

+15 dB

41

an educational audiologist typically performs classroom noise level measurement using a device called a

sound level meter

42

readings are taken using a decibel scale that is acoustically modified for speech communication this is known as a ________

dBA weighted scale

43

_______is perhaps the greatest classroom offender when it comes to children with hearing loss

background noise

44

the reflection of sound that varies according to the surfaces that it is reflected off of

reverberation

45

______generally have more absorption ability and therefore have less sound reflection

softer surfaces

46

______generally have less absorption ability and therefore reflect more sound

hard surfaces

47

____________can be measured using conventional reverberation time meters or applications for handheld devices

reverberation time

48

-unoccupied classroom levels must not exceed 35 dBA
-signal to noise ratio should be at least +15 dB at the child's ears
- unoccupied classroom reverberation must not surpass .6 seconds in smaller classrooms or .7 second in large rooms

standards for optimal speech understanding (ANSI and ASHA)

49

intervention for persons who have not developed listening speech and language skills - pre lingual
-- auditory training or speech and language therapy for children who have hearing loss

habilitation

50

focus more on adults and older children that have developed speech and language - postlingual

rehabilitation

51

rehabilitation includes

diagnosis of hearing loss
provided listening devices
follow up support services, such as communication strategies, auditory and speechreading training

52

steps of aural rehabilitation

evaluation
preparation/ development of aural (re)habilitation strategy
counseling
communication mode
listening devices
early intervention program

53

children with HL will not catch up without

intervention

54

what causes hearing loss? Risk factors:

low birth weight/ premature
family history
maternal diabetes
in utero infections
ototoxic medications
low apgar score
use of ventilator for 5 days or more
craniogacial anomalies
physical manifestations related to syndrome
bacterial meningitis
hyperbillirubinemia

55

_______of children with HL do no have risk factors at birth

50%

56

goals of early intervention:

-to enhance the infant's or toddler's development
- minimize the possibility of developmental delay
-to enhance the family's ability to accommodate the child's needs

57

written document developed by a team of health care professionals and the family

IFSP individualized family service plan

58

the form or type of communication used
-- determined early in the process
-- prevents confusion with the child
--everyone is in agreement and on the same page

mode of communication

59

the means used to share info between you and your child, it may include speech, sign, writing, hand gestures, or any other system of shared symbols

communication mode types

60

manual system of communication used by members of the deal culture in the USA

american sign language (ASL)

61

children with significant hearing loss learn ASL as first language and then later learn english in school, as they develop reading and writing skills

bilingual/ bicultural model

62

-culturally and linguistically distinct from the hearing society
- a community primary composed of individuals who have pre lingual deafness and identify with the Deaf culture rather than feel like they are a part of hearing culture

deaf community

63

-has the same syntactic structure as english
-can speak simultaneously while signing
-corresponds to english words

manually coded english

64

-system fro enhancing speech reading, uses phonemically based gestures to distinguish between similar visual speech patterns
-not widely used
- talker speaks while simultaneously cueing the message
- uses 8 different hand shapes to distinguish consonants and 6 locations on face and neck are used to distinguish vowels

cued speech

65

the language used by persons with normal hearing

aural / oral language

66

utilize both vision and hearing to recognize speech

multi-sensory approach

67

encourages child to develop listening behaviors and help develop spoken communication by relying on residual hearing rather than vision

auditory- verbal approach

68

advocated the use of residual hearing ONLY

unisensory approach

69

professionals will work with your children on the development of the four auditory skill levels

sound awareness
sound discrimination
identification
comprehension

70

awareness that a sound is present

sound awareness

71

listener can identify the auditory stimuli

sound identification

72

understanding the meaning of spoken language

comprehension

73

auditory training is provided to children from an

audiologist or a speech pathologist

74

who makes the decision of the communication mode?

the parents

75

factors that affect which is the best mode of communication for each child

-age of HL onset/ degree of HL
- prelingual vs postlingual
-cultural implications (deaf community )