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For both girls and boys, puberty typically begins as young as _____ years of age or as late as _____ years of age

8; 14


For girls, the usual sequence of physical changes in puberty is?

1. nipple growth
2. growth spurt
3. menarche


Gregory, age 11, noticed that he has some pubic hair. According to the usual sequence of puberty, his next pubertal event will be?

penis growth


what substance causes the ovaries and testes to greatly increase their production of estradiol and testosterone?

gonadotropin-releasing hormone


what type of correlation between body fat and the onset of puberty in females?



one of the first signs of the growth spurt is ______

growth of fingers and toes


During adolescence, the ______ matures before the _____ in the brain

1. limbic system
2. prefrontal cortex


deductive reasoning

reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out specifics


analytic thought

formal, logical, hypothetical-deductive thinking described by Piaget



the idea that intelligence can be directly increased by effort


the first hormones to begin the process of puberty are signaled from the child's pituitary gland and then produced by the ______

adrenal glands


gonadotropin-releasing hormone

the substances that cause the ovaries and testes to greatly increase their production of estradiol and testosterone


a teen with negative _____ feels insecure about the way he or she looks, which often leads to dieting and poor nutrition

body image


the _____ system reaches full maturation before the prefrontal cortex, which makes strong, immediate sensations extremely attractive to teens

limbic system


recognition for academic excellence is especially elusive in _____ because teachers at this level tend to mark more harshly than those at other levels

middle school


the international test taken by 15 year olds that is designed to measure the problem solving and practical cognition used in daily life

PISA- program for international student assessment


relationship between stress and the onset of puberty and the evolutionary link of why this might exist

Positive correlation between stress levels and puberty. If one is highly stressed, their puberty begins earlier than their peers.
Evolution- when harsh conditions threatened human survival, it was crucial that adolescents reproduce early. Natural selection hastened puberty to increase birth rate, to ensure that people reproduced before they died.


5 issues with adolescent nutrition

1. skip breakfast
2. binge at midnight
3. anemia in girls
4. calcium deficiency because of not drinking enough milk
5. poor food choices near schools


digital divide

gap between those who did and did not have computers a decade ago. The divide is shrinking today because of the lowered cost of smart phones. Now the digital dvide is age



when a person is bullied via electronic devices
most harmful if the victim believes in an imaginary audience
adolescents most likely to be involved are usually already bullies or victims or both, with bully-victims the most likely to engage in, and suffer from, cyberbullying


what typically happens to student achievement and behavior during middle school?

academic achievement declines and behavioral problems arise because teachers have hundreds of students which makes them impersonal and distant and many middle schoolers seek acceptance from their peers rather than their teachers


identity diffusion refers to the identity status in which adolescents

do not commit to goals and fail to take on any role


17 year old nicholas failed classes, lost his job, and spends most of his time sleeping on the couch. When his parents voice their disapproval, he replies, "whatever"

role confusion


19 year old chad is serving a 2 yr mission for his church. when he returns home, he will decide whether to attend college and will make decisions about career and family



research indicates that adolescents who work more than 20 hours a week during the school year ______

tend to hate their jobs and achieve less in school


In typical relationships, one would expect the most bickering between

mothers and daughts


bickering between parents and adolescents is most likely to

concern personal habits and dress


Shortly after Louisa turned 18, she developed a newfound appreciation of her parents. what contributed to her change in attitude?

her parents have adjusted to her independence


alisha took an overdose of prescription pills, but before she lost consciousness she called her mom for help. Alisha was rushed to the hospital for medical attention. This behavior is defined as ______



life-course-persistent offenders

may show signs of neurological impairment