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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (90)
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1

steps of scientific method

1. curiousity
2. hypothesis
3. test hypothesis
4. draw conclusions
5. report results
6. replication

2

multi-directional

multiple changes, in every direction, characterize the life span

3

cohort

people born within the same historical period
experience historical events, technologies, and cultural shifts

4

3 behavioral learning processes

1. classical conditioning-response becomes triggered by a formerly neutral stimulus
2. operant conditioning (instrumental)- a particular action is followed by something desired or by something unwanted
3. social learning theory- emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior

5

Piaget's periods of cognitive development

1. sensorimotor-birth- 2 yrs- infants use sense to understand world. learning is active. Gain object permanence and think through mental actions
2. Preoperational-2-6 yrs- kids think magically using language to understand world. egocentric-see from own perspective. imagination flourishes and language becomes a significant means of self expression
3. concrete operational- 6-11 yrs- children apply logic and interpret objectively, thinking limited to personal experience. Learns concepts of conservation, number, and scientific ideas
4. Formal Operational- 12-adult- think about hypothetical concepts and reason analytically. can be logical about things they've never experienced. Learn ethics, politics, and moral issues

6

Who was all about studying observable behavior?

watson

7

maslow's hierarchy of needs

physiological
safety
love & belonging
esteem
self-actualization

8

epigenetics

the study of how environmental factors affect the expression of genes

9

the theorist who emphasized relationships to family and culture at each stage of his psychosocial theory

erikson

10

compare and contrast freud and erikson's theories

both- have stage theories based on belief that adult problems echoed childhood conflicts.
erikson has 8 stages, freud has 4
freud ends in adolescence
erikson goes thru entire life with conflicts at each stage
erikson emphasizes family and culture
freud emphasizes unconscious sexual urges

11

cognitive theory

helps scientists to understand how intellectual processes and thinking affect people's actions

12

behavioral theory

shown the effect that immediate responses and associations have on human learning

13

sociocultural theory

show how one's culture, social interaction, and environment impact one's behaviors

14

psychoanalytic theory

made scientists aware of importance of social and emotional experiences during early childhood

15

universal theories

stress those things that all humans share despite their culture, location, or era

16

microsystems

family, classroom, religious class, peer group

17

exosystems

community, mass media, medical institutions, school

18

macrosystems

cultural values, social conditions, economic patterns

19

chronosystem

how things change across time

20

mesosystems

how they systems interact

21

which developmentalist was the first to describe the interaction between culture and education

Lev Vygotsky

22

a correlation is considered to be negative if

one variable increases while the other variable decreases

23

a gene carried on the x chromosome

x linked

24

3 main periods of prenatal development from conception to birth

germinal, embryonic, and fetal

25

the average length of active labor

about 12 hours

26

one in every ____ infants is born with only one sex chromosome or with three or more, which creates a chromosomal abnormality

500

27

genes with various repeats or deletions of base pairs

copy number variations

28

huntington disease

a fatal central nervous system disorder caused by a copy number variation-more than 35 repetitions of a particular set of three base pairs

29

babies born under 1000 grams (2 pounds 3 oz)

extremely low birthweight

30

babies less than 5.5 pounds

low birthweight