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1

Gene Flow

-The movement of alleles from one population to another by migration

-Introduce “novel” alleles to a population from some other population

2

Genetic Drift

-Chance alteration of allele frequencies in a population (change in allele frequencies)

Types:
1. Founder Effect
2. Population Bottlenecks
3. Inbreeding (not focusing on this)

3

Founder Effect

-Type of genetic drift

-New population is started by a few individuals that are not representative of genetic diversity in the original population

-Colonization of a new habitat by a few individuals that then give rise to a new population

-Founding individuals do not represent the total genetic variation in original population

-Ex: founder effect in red spotted toads
-Rapid range expansion with a series of founder events
-Leading to reduced genetic diversity

4

Population Bottleneck

-Type of genetic drift

-Follows population decline

-Surviving individuals do not represent genetic diversity of the original population

-Survival during the decline is random
-Chance of surviving is random; not based on selection of any trait or characteristic (if it was, it would be natural selection -- not bottleneck)

-Ex: Northern elephant seals
-Original population: had high genetic diversity →
-Hunting in late 1800s: genetically reduced populations →
-Survivors had little genetic diversity →
-The difference is reflected in today’s population

-*Look in Evolution Parts 1 & 2 Packet

5

Sexual Selection

-Differential reproductive success based on differences in the success of obtaining mates

-Female mate choice

-Nonrandom mating

-Controlling access to mates
-Ex: great-tailed grackles; local version called boat-tailed grackle

6

How species come into being?

-Speciation/Allopatric speciation (“of other countries”)

-Occurs when the geographical range of a species is split into discontinuous parts by formation of barriers to gene flow
-Could still mate with them but don’t

-Hypothetical example of forest frogs:
-Populations become isolated in different areas
-If enough gene flow occurs, the population will remain genetically similar
-But if gene flow is lacking, populations diverge
-After time, if individuals from diverging populations can no longer reproduce, speciation has occurred

7

Reading Evolutionary Trees

-Example in Evolutionary 1 & 2 Packet
-Example using the evolution of terrestrial animals in the phylum: Chordata

-Evolution of terrestrial vertebrates

-Vertical distance represents time

-Ancestral Characters: Existed in the common ancestor

-Derived Characters: unique to taxa (group)

-Remember mammals did/do lay eggs! Platypus

8

Evolution of the Great Apes

-When we shared a common ancestor:

-About 12 million years ago with orangutan

-About 6 million years ago with gorilla

-About 4.5 million years ago with chimpanzees


-Chimpanzees are more closely related to us than to gorillas

9

Tissue

A group of cells of a similar type that work together for a common purpose

10

Four Types of Tissue?

-Epithelial

-Connective

-Muscle

-Nervous

11

Epithelial Tissue

-Covers body surfaces; lines cavities and organs

-Shapes:
-Squamous
-Cuboidal: can be simple (function = secretion) or stratified (function = protection)
-Columnar: simple (single layer; good for getting things in and out) or stratified

12

Connective Tissue. Types?

-Most abundant and has various forms

-Cells embedded in extracellular matrix composed of protein fibers and ground substances

-Extracellular = outside of cell
-Matrix - structure implying that it doesn’t mix, yet it works together
-Protein Fibers = soluble protein fibers
-Ground Substances = cell secretions

-Binds
-Supports
-Transports
-Stores Energy

-Come in 2 types: proper and specialized

13

Proper Connective Tissue

-Type of connective tissue

-Areolar

-Adipose

-Dense

14

Areolar

-Type of proper connective tissue

-widely distributed under skin, around organs, and muscles

-structure and cushions

-think about it looking like a net

15

Adipose

-(fat) found under skin, around organs

-energy storage, insulation, cushioning of organs

16

Dense

-tendons and ligaments

-function = attachment and movement

17

Specialized Connective Tissue

-Type of connective tissue

-Cartilage

-Bone

-Blood

18

Cartilage

-joint cartilage (lines bones)

-absorbs shock (disks between vertebrae)

-more flexible cartilage in ears and nose

19

Bone

-for structure, protection, and movement

-bones are alive!

-storage of lipids (yellow marrow) and minerals (calcium, phosphorus), and production of red blood cells (red marrow)

20

Blood (in terms of tissue)

-cells and cell fragments (platelets)

-fibers = soluble proteins (obvious when blood dries and forms clots)

-main function is transport (of oxygen, CO2, nutrients, etc.)

-Plasma = liquid matrix

21

Muscle Tissue

-Skeletal

-Cardiac

-Smooth

22

Skeletal

-type of muscle tissue

-found around bones

-cylindrical, striated cells with many nuclei

-voluntary contraction

23

Cardiac

-type of muscle tissue

-found only around heart

-branching, striated cells with one nucleus

-wall of heart, pumps

-involuntary contraction

24

Smooth

-type of muscle tissue

-found around intestines and urinary tubules

-nonstriated, one nucleus

-walls of intestines, blood vessels, etc.

-involuntary contraction (constricts)

25

Nervous Tissue

-Associated with nervous system -- nerves, brain, spinal cord

-Cell Types:
-Neurons
-Neuroglia

26

Neurons

-They are nerve cells

-Generate and conduct nerve impulses

27

Neuroglia

-Provides nutrients, insulates, protects neurons

28

Organ

-Structure composed of two or more tissues that work together

29

Integumentary System

-Skin

-includes sweat glands, oil glands, hair, nails

-large organ

For:
-Protection: of physical and chemical factors; of organisms (invasion)

-Limits water loss: keratin (keratinization)

-Temperature Regulation

-Excretion: of wastes

-Sensory: detection of external stimuli

30

Skin Layers

-Two layers:
1. Epidermis
2. Dermis

31

Epidermis

-Layers of epithelial cells

-Constantly shed and replaced

-Keratinized outermost are dead (waterproof)

32

Dermis

-Lower level of skin

-Dense, connective tissue

-Blood vessels, hair follicles, glands, nerves

33

Skin Color

-Two factors:
-Pigment:
-melanin -- produced by melanocytes
-colors dependent on form of melanin produced: yellow-red or black-brown & size of granules

-Blood Flow:
-amount of oxygen level
-High O2 = ruby red
-Low O2 = deep red-bluish

34

Accessory Structures

-Hair = modified skin cells

-Nails = modified skin cells

-Glands = oil, wax, sweat

-Functions: insulation, protection, or sensory

35

Homeostasis of Body Temperature

-Maintenance of favorable (stable) internal conditions in the face of external conditions

-Organ systems interact to provide controlled environments for cellular functions

-Temperature controlled by hypothalamus -- set point is 37 degrees C

-Skin receptors sense surface temperature

-Internal receptors monitor blood temperature?

-Brain initiates mechanisms (stimulates effectors) that produce or conserve heat

36

Sensor - Control Center - Effector

-When set point is reached, sensors no longer send signals to the brain, so…?

-Thus, a negative feedback (just like thermostat at home)

-*This is when external environment is cold

-LOOK IN TISSUES AND ORGANS PACKET FOR CIRCULAR THING

-These either belong here or under “Homeostasis of Body Temperature”
-Skin receptors sense surface temperature

-Internal receptors monitor blood temperature?

-Brain initiates mechanisms (stimulates effectors) that produce or conserve heat

37

Skeletal System

-Support

-Movement

-Protection

-Storage (of fat and minerals)

-Blood cell production

38

Compact Bones

-Dense
-Central cavity (in long bones)
-Contained in blood vessels, yellow marrow

-Covered by membrane: periosteum
-Contains blood vessels, nerves

-Yellow marrow

39

Spongy Bone

-Lattice-like structure: latticework of tiny beams

-Contains red marrow

40

Bone/Bone Structure

Bone:
-Hard and resilient

-Made up of
-matrix

-mineral salts: hardness from mineral salts
-calcium and phosphorus

-Elastic protein: resiliency from elastic protein collagen

Bone Structure:
-Covered by membrane, periosteum
-Blood vessels

-Bone cells = osteocytes

41

Osteoblasts

-Blast = beginning bud

-Make bone

-Cells that create matrix by secrete proteins and minerals (know dominant minerals, like calcium)

-Related to osteocytes

-During development bones start as cartilage, over time osteoblasts convert this bone

-Some osteoblasts form a matrix around themselves and become osteocytes

42

Bone Remodeling

-Lifelong process of deposition and breakdown

-Renews bone, regulates blood, calcium, and other minerals

-Osteoclasts

-Osteoblasts

-Calcitonin

-Parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoclasts

43

Osteoclasts

-Cells that breakdown bone

-Relaxing calcium and other minerals

44

Osteoblasts

-Secrete new bone matrix

-Removes calcium and other minerals

45

Calcitonin

-Stimulates osteoblasts and inhibits osteoclasts

46

Osteoporosis

-Disorder that results in weak, brittle bones

-Bone remodeling problem
-Estrogen aids in remodeling process
-Calcium is needed
-Vitamin D is needed for calcium absorption

47

Bone Repair

-Occurs when bone breaks

-Bleeding: clotting -- bleeding from blood vessels in bone and periosteum

-Fibroblasts: formation of callus -- connective tissue cells ingrown inward from periosteum, forming a callus (mass)

-Secretion of cartilage: these cells transform and begin secreting cartilage

-Transformation of cartilage to bone: osteoblasts (from periosteum)

48

Axial and Appendicular Skeleton

-Skull is NOT one bone

-Like 14 facial bones

-Rib cage: protect internal organs; sternum (breastbone)

49

Joints

-Bendable places where bones meet

-3 Types:
-Fibrous Joints
-Cartilaginous Joints
-Synovial Joints

-Cartilage layers that allow sliding of bone

-Membranes and cells that secrete fluid

50

Fibrous Joints

-Immovable

-Ex: skull

51

Cartilaginous Joints

-Immovable to slightly movable

-Ex: In rib cage (it can expand and stuff)

52

Synovial Joints

-Freely moveable

-Ex: Knee

-Cartilage layers that allow sliding of bone

-Membranes and cells that secrete fluid

53

How many freely moveable joints to humans have?

-A helluva lot

-More than 30

54

Muscular System

-Humans have more than 600 muscles

-Excitable (respond to stimuli)

-Contractile

-Extensible (stretch)

-Elastic (return to original length/form)

55

General Characteristics of Muscles

-Striated: alternating (light and dark) bands of actin and myosin filaments (proteins)

-One muscle cell extends from stationary attachment to a moveable attachment

-Most are arranged in antagonistic pairs

56

Structure of Muscles

-Bundles: bundles of bundles of bundles of bundles

-Inside bundles are muscle fibers = muscle cells

57

Sarcomeres

-They are functional units of contraction

-Each muscle cell contains thousands of sarcomeres

-Made up of protein myofilaments: actin and myosin

58

Movement of Sarcomeres

-(Sliding filament model)

-Sliding of actin filaments across myosin filaments

-Requires ATP: restoring myosin filaments has ADP and P bound to its head
-Uses energy to get immediate energy

-Thousands of sarcomeres sliding = contraction

59

Motor Unit

-Nerve (motor neuron) and the muscle cells it stimulates to contract

-Strength of a muscle contraction involves recruitment of more and more motor units

-Motor neuron may affect only a few muscle cells or thousands
-Think of lifting chair vs. lifting soda can example

60

Why do we prep energy for muscles?

To save time.

61

Difference between lifting a can of soda vs. chair?

Number of motor units needed to initiate it (contraction movement)

62

Skeletal Muscle Contraction

-Signal from nerve

-Calcium is needed for muscle contraction

-Power stroke (ADP & P) move off)

-Myosin reactivation uses ATP (energy)

63

Signaling (of muscle contraction)

-Step 1: Nerve impulse reaches the neuromuscular junction

-Step 2: Acetylcholine released into the junction

-Step 3: Acetylcholine binds to receptors on the plasma membrane of sarcomere, and electrochemical message is generated

-Step 4: Calcium ions released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum -- contraction initiated

-LOOK AT BACK OF SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS PACKET

64

Neuromuscular junction

Junction between nerve and muscles

65

Slow-Twitch Muscle Cells

-Contract slowly

-Richly supplied with oxygen (aerobic)

-Abundant mtDNA

-Deliver prolonged, strong contractions

66

Fast-Twitch Muscle Cells

-Contract rapidly

-Powerful, packed with more actin and myosin

-Less endurance (anaerobic)

67

Muscular Energy in Muscle Cells

-Energy sources for muscle cells contractions

-Stored ATP:
-about 6 seconds

-Stored creatine phosphate:
-molecule used to quickly recharge ATP:
-about 10 seconds

-Anaerobic respiration:
-About 30-40 seconds
-For short efforts, this pathway generates ATP from glucose stored in muscle cells faster than…?

-Aerobic Respiration:
-Lower levels of ATP production for long periods

68

Nervous System

-Central: brain and spinal cord

-Peripheral: nervous tissue outside CNS

69

What is the basic unit of the nervous system?

-Neuron!
-nerve cell

70

Neuron (2?)

-Nerve cell

-Excitable cell: generate and transmit information

71

Three types of neurons?

1. Sensory Neurons

2. Motor Neurons

3. Interneurons

72

Sensory Neurons

-Conduct signal towards CNS (to brain or spinal cord)

73

Motor Neurons

-Carry signals from CNS to an effector (muscle or gland)

74

Interneurons

-Found only in brain and spinal cord

-Interpret sensory signals, initiate response

75

Reflex Arc

-LOOK IN NEURONS PACKET

-Finger over flame thing
-It would be one motor unit

76

Structure of a Neuron

-Dendrites: Provide huge surface for receiving signals

-Cell Body: contains all the normal organelles (including nucleus)

-Axon: (nerve fiber) long extension down which a signal travels

-Axon Endings: transmit signal

-LOOK IN NEURONS PACKET

77

Information Flow Through Neurons

-Signal collection

-Integration of incoming signal and generation of outgoing signal

-Axon

-SIgnal passed to another nerve cell or to an effector cell

78

Myelin Sheath

-Plasma membrane of glial cell

-Insulates Axon: insulating outer layer of axon

-Nodes: gaps; nodes of ranvier (unmyelinated gap)

-Signal moves fast by jumping gaps (100x faster)
-Signal skipping over the cells
-Occurs mostly on neurons outside CNS

-If start to lose myelin sheath = multiple sclerosis (MS)

-LOOK IN NEURONS PACKET

79

What's a nerve impulse (or signal)?

Also talk a bit about "rest"

=Action Potential

-Electrical signal caused by Na+ and K+ ions crossing neuron’s membrane (entering or leaving the cell)

-At “rest”, the inner surface of membrane is more negatively charged than outer surface

-LOOK IN NEURONS PACKET

80

Maintaining Differences in Electrical Charge

-Unequal distribution of Na+ and K+

-Open ion channels

-Gated ion channels

-Sodium/Potassium Pump

-LOOK IN NEURONS PACKET

81

Resting Potential

-Unequal distribution of ions

-K+ concentration high on inside of cell

-Na+ concentration high on outside

-K+ tend to leak out, Na+ tends to leak in

-Cell uses energy for pumps to maintain or reset sodium/potassium balance (necessary balance)

82

Action Potential

-Neuron receives excited signal; charge difference across membrane reverses

-Resting state: cell is negative inside, positive outside
-Resting Neuron: plasma membrane is negative inside relative to outside

-Depolarization

-Repolarization

-Action potential travels along axon “like a wave”

-Pumps then redistribute Na+ and K+

83

Depolarization

-Signal causes Na+ gates to open, these ions rush into the cell, and interior of cell becomes positively charged

84

Repolarization

-Restoration of resting state

-K+ gates open, these ions rush out, returning interior of cell back to negative charge

85

More on Action Potential

-Bioelectrical signal

-Uses differences in Na+ and K+ concentrations to move signal quickly

-Signal strength threshold (all or nothing)

-Refractory Period (pumps reset ion concentrations)

-Sustained signals occur as impulses
-Increasing strength of stimuli will increase pulse rate, but only to a point, and the signal cannot be reversed

86

Restoration of Ion Distribution

-Sodium-potassium pump restores original distribution of ions

-LOOK IN NEURONS PACKET

87

Why don’t we have threshold closer to resting point?

-Because we’d have too many!

-Everything would cause movement

-He twitched and stuff

-LOOK IN NEURONS PACKET

88

Neuron to Receptor Communication
(Synapse, NT, types of synapses)

-Synapse

-Neurotransmitters
-Process? Exocytosis

-Excitatory Synapse -- increase activity of postsynaptic cell and increases likelihood of AN ACTION POTENTIAL

-Inhibitory Synapse -- decrease activity of postsynaptic cell and decreases likelihood of AN ACTION POTENTIAL

-Any given neuron may have THOUSANDS of excitatory and inhibitory synapses -- combine effect determines whether an action potential is generated

-LOOK IN NEURONS PACKET

89

Synapse

-Junction between a neuron and another neuron

90

Neurotransmitters

-Chemicals that carry signals between neurons

-Once used, neurotransmitters must be removed from synaptic cleft
-Removed by enzymatic removal (ex: acetylcholinesterase removes acetylcholine) OR
-Recycled: pumped back into presynaptic neuron for reuse

-Many different types of neurotransmitters

-Activity of any neurotransmitter is determined by presence of receptors on “receiving neuron”

91

Why might you want signals to stop firing?

Pain relief!

92

Neurotransmitter Examples

-Serotonin:
-obsession, compulsion, memory

-Norepinephrine:
-alertness, concentration, energy
-associated with fight or flight response

-Dopamine:
-reward, motivation, pleasure

93

Complexity of Synapses.

-Neurons are talking to other neurons (inhibitory and excitatory)

-Acetylcholine and norepinephrine act in both CNS and PNS

94

Major divisions of the Nervous System?

-Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
-(CNS has all three types of neurons)

-LOOK IN NERVOUS SYSTEM PACKET

95

Peripheral Nervous System

-Sensory Division
-receptors to stimuli
-sensory neurons that signal to CNS
-sensory neurons found here

-Motor Division - motor neurons: carry signals from CNS
-Includes Somatic NS and Autonomic NS
-Motor neurons found here

96

Somatic NS

-Senses information

-Allows voluntary movements

-Ex: standing in shade when hot

97

Autonomic NS

-Regulates involuntary and subconscious activities

-Ex: sweating to cool down

98

Brain -- Cerebrum, Cerebral Cortex, and Cerebral White Matter

-Cerebrum: complex portion of brain, consisting of two hemispheres

-Cerebral Cortex:
-Grey Matter - thin outer layer
-Billions of nerve cells with unmyelinated axons and glial cells

-Cerebral White Matter:
-Beneath the grey matter
-Nerve cells with myelinated axons
-Communication between neurons in the brain and between brain and rest of body

99

What does myelination have to do with humans?

-Communication between neurons in brain and between brain and rest of body

-Bouncing information quickly!

100

Areas of Cerebrum?

-Frontal Lobe

-Parietal Lobe

-Temporal Lobe

-Occipital Lobe

101

Frontal Lobe?

-Voluntary motor function

-Personality

-Speech

-Frontal lobotomies (where the ice pick thing happened)

102

Parietal Lobe?

-Sensory function
-e.g., taste

-Sits behind frontal lobe

103

Temporal Lobe?

-Auditory and olfactory

104

Occipital Lobe?

-Processes visual information

105

Cerebrum -- Sensory and Motor Areas

-Primary motor area
-Located across frontal lobes

-Primary somatosensory area
-Located across parietal lobes

-Figure 8.5

106

Other divisions of the brain

-Cerebrum

-Brain Stem

-Cerebellum

-Thalamus

-Hypothalamus

-Limbic System

107

Cerebrum

-Voluntary movement

-Interpreting sensations

-Decision making

-Self-awareness

-Creativity

-Language

-Much of memory

-Part of tus we think is us?

108

Brain Stem

-Midbrain: relays and integrates signals

-Pons: bridge between higher and lower brains

-Medulla Oblongata: autonomic centers for respiration, heart rate, and digestion

109

Cerebellum

-Coordinates voluntary sensory-motor movements

-Stores memory of “learned motor patterns”

110

Thalamus

-Process sensory signals and relays information to appropriate higher centers

111

Hypothalamus

-Largely responsible for autonomic functions of homeostasis
-Heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, body temperature, hunger

112

Limbic System

-Complex set of structures including the amygdala and hippocampus and nearby structures

-Primarily responsible for our emotional life

-Important in the formation of memories

-Figure 8.6

113

Two Different Types of Brain Injury

-Acquired brain injury

-Traumatic Brain Injury

114

Acquired Brain Injury

-cerebrovascular accident: (“cerebro” = brain; “vascular” = blood vessels; “accident” = problem)

-Death of neurons from interruption of blood flow to a region of the brain

-Causes:
-Stroke -- blood clots, fatty deposits
-Aneurysms - burst blood vessels
-Heart Attack
-Meningitis -- infections of the meninges (membranes surrounding brain and spine)
-Substance Abuse -- drugs that affect brain are often neurotoxins that cause…?

115

Traumatic Brain Injury

-Damage to neurons or nerve connections from force (trauma)

-Causes:
-Automobile accident (half of all cases)
-Slip-and-fell (shower)
-Sports Injury
-Gun Shot
-Explosions (war)

116

Spinal Cord

-Transmits signals to/from brain
-Connects to medulla

-Reflexes: interneurons associated with reflexes

117

Reflex Arc

-Circuit of neurons in spinal cord pre-wired to respond to stimuli
-Important for speedy responses

-Components:
-Receptor
-Sensory Neuron
-Interneuron (integration center)
-Motor Neuron
-Effector

-Look at other reflex picture thing!

118

Autonomic Nervous System-- Two Parts:

-Parasympathetic NS

-Sympathetic NS

119

Parasympathetic NS

-”Resting-n-Digesting”
-Individual organ responses
-Direct blood to digestive tract

120

Sympathetic NS

-”Fight-or-Flight”
-All effects at once
-Acts via adrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine)

121

Traits of muscles?

-Contractile

-Elastic

-Extensible

-Excitable

122

Which type of neuron carries information (signals) decided on by nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord to muscles or glands that can then respond?

Motor Neuron

123

Terms that can be used to describe the signal that travels along a nerve cell?

-Action potential

-Nerve impulse

-Electrochemical signal

124

What is a synaptic knob?

-The tip of an axon ending at the end of a neuron

125

A skeletal muscle can be best described as?

-Bundles of bundles of muscle cells working together

126

What is the name given to the connection between a nerve cell (motor neuron) and a muscle cell?

Neuromuscular junction.

127

If the inside of the neuron is negatively charged compared to the outside, the neuron is in the…?

Resting state

128

What part of a neuron receives information from other neurons or from the environment?

Dendrite

129

What is the name given to the molecules or chemicals that carry a nerve impulse (signal) across the synaptic gap between two neurons?

Neurotransmitter.

130

What is the first energy source for muscle contraction at the cellular level?

ATP stores

131

Which nerve is responsible for integrating and interpreting sensory signals and determining an appropriate response?

Interneurons.

132

A motor unit is a?

Motor neuron and all of the muscle cells it stimulates

133

Which muscle type might you want if you were in a long-distance, multi-day backpacking race in the mountains?

Slow-twitch muscles

134

In terms of nervous system processes, what is an effector?

A muscle or gland that responds to information from the nervous system.

135

Which part of a neuron is most closely associated with transmission of an impulse (signal) over long distances within the body?

Axon.

136

What is the name given to the junction between two neurons?

Synapse.

137

The movement of an electrochemical signal along the axon of a neuron is associated with which ion?

Potassium ion (K+) AND Sodium (Na+)

138

Term that best describes muscles that oppose one another?

Antagonistic.

139

What is a neurotransmitter?

A molecule (chemical) released by a neuron that transmits a signal to an adjacent cell.

140

What is the sliding filament model?

A description of the actions of actin and myosin filaments that cause contraction of a sarcomere

141

Cells that compose nervous tissue consist of two general types. Which type of cell generates and conducts nerve impulses?

Neurons.

142

When homeostasis for body temperature is completely lost, a person?

Dies.

143

What is the definition for an organ?

A structure composed of two or more different tissues that work together to perform a specific function.

144

Sometimes swabs are taken of the inside of the mouth for DNA sampling. What type of cell is being collected?

Probably epithelial cells.

145

Which type of muscle occurs in the walls of intestines and is associated with the movement of food within the digestive system?

Smooth muscle.

146

What are the three components necessary for control of homeostatic factors like maintaining body temperature?

1. Some type of structure that detects changes in the internal or external environment.

2. Some type of control structure that integrates information from the receptors or sensors and directs an appropriate response.

3. Some type of effector (that is a muscle or a gland) that can bring about a necessary adjustment when directed to do so.

147

What type of connective tissue contains cells specialized for the storage of fat?

Adipose.

148

What is the name given to a group of cells that work together for a common function?

Tissue.

149

What type of tissue does skin contain?

-Epithelial

-Muscle

-Connective

-Nervous

-Skin isn’t any general type of tissue, but it does contain all of the types)

150

Bone and blood are both examples of which general type of tissue?

Connective.

151

What is the primary (first order) division of the nervous system?

Central and Peripheral

152

Blood and alcohol level is…?

Dependent on more than simply the number of drinks consumed (on your size too)

153

Opiates are _________?

Natural or synthetic drugs that affect pain relief in major ways.

154

What is the primary advantage to a spinal reflex?

It allows for very fast responses.

155

When a person uses a psychoactive drug so much that they need the drug for their physical or psychological well-being, this person is said to be?

Dependent on the drug.

156

The hypothalamus is largely responsible for homeostasis. Therefore, this portion of the lower brain must be associated with?

The control of functions like heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and body temperature.

157

Where would you find interneurons (aka “thinking cells”) other than in the brain?

In the spinal cord.

158

According to the text, what are the potential health related effects of chronic marijuana use?

-Respiratory problems

-Increases risk of cardiovascular problems and disease

-Lower testosterone levels in males (the major sex hormone)

159

What type of nerve cell processes information about pain coming from the foot and then produced an appropriate response that is then sent to an effector (in this case, ordering the leg muscle to contract)?

Motor neuron

160

What is the major (first order) division of the peripheral nervous system?

Sensory vs. motor

161

Drugs that alter one’s mood and behavior are called?

Psychoactive.

162

You just finished running and your heart rate is fast and you are breathing hard. In what part of the brain are basic body functions, like heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing controlled?

Hypothalamus (and maybe medulla).

163

The reaction of the body to an emergency is controlled by the ______ nervous system.

Sympathetic.

164

What are the main parts of the central nervous system?

Spinal cord and brain.

165

Two students were arguing. One claimed that two glasses of wine (12% alcohol, 5 oz. each) contained more alcohol than two bottles of standard beer (12 oz. each). What this student correct?

Yes.

166

The primary functions of the spinal cord involve?

Reflex actions and communication between the brain and spinal nerves.

167

What is the primary function of the cerebellum?

Coordination of complex muscular movements.

168

Processes of how a psychoactive drug can alter communications across a synapse?

-Drug could fit into the receptors for the neurotransmitter, blocking the neurotransmitter, but not stimulating an effect

-Drug could increase the number of neurotransmitter molecules in the synapse, thus producing a greater effect

-The drug could act like a neurotransmitter, fitting into the receptors and producing the effect

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When it takes increasing amounts of a drug to have the same effect, someone is said to be?

Tolerant.

170

Which organ is responsible for metabolizing alcohol?

Liver.

171

What portion of our brain is considered the center of our emotions?

Limbic system (which consists of several interacting structures)

172

Which drug is not a stimulant, and is surprisingly, considered a depressant?

Alcohol.

173

Psychoactive Drug

-Natural or synthetic molecules that alter communication between neurons:
-Releases NTs
-/Stimulates/Inhibits NTs
-Delay Nt removal/breakdown
-Acts like a NT by binding to NT
-stimulate receptors on postsynaptic neurons
-Prevent NT action
-block receptors (prevent NT action)

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Physical response to chronic use: Tolerance

-Def: progressive decrease in effectiveness of a drug

-Require more drug… longer/more frequent doses to produce the same effect

-Body tries to maintain homeostasis in the face of drugs
-Increases enzymatic production to more quickly breakdown the drug
-Decreases number of receptors on postsynaptic neurons

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Dependency

-Physical changes to nervous system

-Drug is required by user for their physical or physiological well-being

-No longer able to produce “appropriate” or “normal” responses because of physical changes (in nervous system)

-Drug required to maintain level of “homeostasis”

-Withdrawal symptoms occur when drug use stop signs

176

Drugs that most quickly lead to dependency?

-They stimulate “pleasure” centers of the brain

-Main examples:
-Cocaine
-Amphetamines
-Morphine/Opiates
-Nicotine

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Cocaine

-Increases residence time in synaptic gap of NT’s

-Dopamine - blocking reuptake
-associated with pleasure centers of the brain

-Norepinephrine - simulates (or stimulates?) release
-normally involved in fight-or-flight response

-Results in feeling of confidence, alertness, pleasure, and power

-Snorted, smoked, or injected

178

Positive effects of cocaine are short-lived and then?

-Lasts no more than 90 minutes

-Followed by a “crash”... feeling anxiety, depression, fatigue (opposite of what you feel while on it)

-Produces a “craving” for more cocaine

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Cocaine Health Issues?

-Cardiovascular
-Increases heart rate, blood pressure, and interferes with nerves that regulate heartbeat

-Constricts arteries - increases blood pressure

-Regulation of heart -- can result in heart attack or stroke

-Respiration
-Interferes with neurons controlling respiration

-As cocaine wears off, activity in respiration centers of brain become depressed -- potentially causing respiratory failure

-Damaged nerves, membranes, blood vessels of the nose (repeated snorting)

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Amphetamines

-Synthetic stimulants that interferes with reuptake and increases release of dopamine and norepinephrine

-Effects dopamine and norepinephrine

-Effects of can last for hours

-In low, controlled doses, prescription versions of these drugs increases alertness, concentration, reduced fatigue

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Meth

-Street form of amphetamine

-Smoked (most common), ingested as pills, crushed then snorted, or injected

-Behavioral modification

-Prolonged use appears to have long-term negative consequences to nervous system

-Chronic meth users often suffer from impairments to memory and emotional centers of brain

-Induces euphoria, feelings of high self-esteem, increased libido, insomnia, mania

-Long-term and high doses: anxiety, paranoia, movement disorders, also hallucinations, and psychotic behavior

-(Plug reuptake pumps)

182

Hallucinogenic Drug?

-Ecstasy

-A diverse array of drugs -- similar effects (like mushrooms, LSD, etc.)

-Visual, auditory, or other hallucinations

-Ecstasy (MDMA) or for all hallucinogenic drugs Effects:
-Serotonin (sense of well-being)
-Acetylcholine promotes release of serotonin and dopamine
-Norepinephine

183

Ecstasy Physiological Effects?

-Stimulant

-Causes HYPERthermia (increased body temp - heat stroke)

-Dehydration
-If water intake is increased substantially, sodium and potassium can become diluted. Sodium needed for action potential in neuron. Better to drink something with electrolytes (gatorade)

-Ecstasy pills/liquids often contain other drugs
-Effect is more meth-like

184

Ecstasy Long-Term Effects

-Degradation of dopamine/serotonin releasing neurons

-Chronic…?

185

Opioids

-Affects opioid receptors

-Produce “morphine-like” effects -- pain relief

-Variety of drugs: morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, tramadol, and heroin

-Easily leads to addiction, physical dependence, thus withdrawal
-Respiratory distress (death)

-Fentanyl and carfentanil -- extremely potent, thus dangerous

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Alcohol

-Depresses (slows down) neuron activity in the brain (of ALL)

-Tends to depress inhibitory neurons quickest

-Excitatory neurons run amuck AT FIRST

-Release from inhibitory controls tends to reduce anxiety and creates a sense of wellbeing

187

Ethanol

-(Alcohol)

-The alcohol in every “alcoholic” drink -- very small molecule

-Both water and lipid soluble (will enter cell very quickly; readily gets into cells)

-Standard “drink” = 0.5 oz of ethanol(/alcohol?)

-Intoxicating effects begins quickly as it is absorbed
-Absorption begins in the stomach

-Higher concentration = faster absorption (stronger the alcohol, faster you’ll get drunk)

-Food slows down absorption

188

Once a neurotransmitter is released into cleft, how do you stop it from working?

-Reuptake

-Enzymes