Flashcards in Test 4 - Final Deck (164)
-Natural or synthetic molecules that alter communication between neurons:
-Delay Nt removal/breakdown
-Acts like a NT by binding to NT
-stimulate receptors on postsynaptic neurons
-Prevent NT action
-block receptors (prevent NT action)
Physical response to chronic use: Tolerance
-Def: progressive decrease in effectiveness of a drug
-Require more drug… longer/more frequent doses to produce the same effect
-Body tries to maintain homeostasis in the face of drugs
-Increases enzymatic production to more quickly breakdown the drug
-Decreases number of receptors on postsynaptic neurons
-Physical changes to nervous system
-Drug is required by user for their physical or physiological well-being
-No longer able to produce “appropriate” or “normal” responses because of physical changes (in nervous system)
-Drug required to maintain level of “homeostasis”
-Withdrawal symptoms occur when drug use stop signs
Drugs that most quickly lead to dependency?
-They stimulate “pleasure” centers of the brain
-Increases residence time in synaptic gap of NT’s
-Dopamine - blocking reuptake
-associated with pleasure centers of the brain
-Norepinephrine - simulates (or stimulates?) release
-normally involved in fight-or-flight response
-Results in feeling of confidence, alertness, pleasure, and power
-Snorted, smoked, or injected
Positive effects of cocaine are short-lived and then?
-Lasts no more than 90 minutes
-Followed by a “crash”... feeling anxiety, depression, fatigue (opposite of what you feel while on it)
-Produces a “craving” for more cocaine
Cocaine Health Issues?
-Increases heart rate, blood pressure, and interferes with nerves that regulate heartbeat
-Constricts arteries - increases blood pressure
-Regulation of heart -- can result in heart attack or stroke
-Interferes with neurons controlling respiration
-As cocaine wears off, activity in respiration centers of brain become depressed -- potentially causing respiratory failure
-Damaged nerves, membranes, blood vessels of the nose (repeated snorting)
-Synthetic stimulants that interferes with reuptake and increases release of dopamine and norepinephrine
-Effects dopamine and norepinephrine
-Effects of can last for hours
-In low, controlled doses, prescription versions of these drugs increases alertness, concentration, reduced fatigue
-Street form of amphetamine
-Smoked (most common), ingested as pills, crushed then snorted, or injected
-Prolonged use appears to have long-term negative consequences to nervous system
-Chronic meth users often suffer from impairments to memory and emotional centers of brain
-Induces euphoria, feelings of high self-esteem, increased libido, insomnia, mania
-Long-term and high doses: anxiety, paranoia, movement disorders, also hallucinations, and psychotic behavior
-(Plug reuptake pumps)
-A diverse array of drugs -- similar effects (like mushrooms, LSD, etc.)
-Visual, auditory, or other hallucinations
-Ecstasy (MDMA) or for all hallucinogenic drugs Effects:
-Serotonin (sense of well-being)
-Acetylcholine promotes release of serotonin and dopamine
Ecstasy Physiological Effects?
-Causes HYPERthermia (increased body temp - heat stroke)
-If water intake is increased substantially, sodium and potassium can become diluted. Sodium needed for action potential in neuron. Better to drink something with electrolytes (gatorade)
-Ecstasy pills/liquids often contain other drugs
-Effect is more meth-like
Ecstasy Long-Term Effects
-Degradation of dopamine/serotonin releasing neurons
-Affects opioid receptors
-Produce “morphine-like” effects -- pain relief
-Variety of drugs: morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, tramadol, and heroin
-Easily leads to addiction, physical dependence, thus withdrawal
-Respiratory distress (death)
-Fentanyl and carfentanil -- extremely potent, thus dangerous
-Depresses (slows down) neuron activity in the brain (of ALL)
-Tends to depress inhibitory neurons quickest
-Excitatory neurons run amuck AT FIRST (because they don’t have breaks on them)
-Release from inhibitory controls tends to reduce anxiety and creates a sense of wellbeing
-The alcohol in every “alcoholic” drink -- very small molecule
-Both water and lipid soluble (will enter cell very quickly; readily gets into cells)
-Standard “drink” = 0.5 oz of ethanol(/alcohol?)
-Intoxicating effects begins quickly as it is absorbed
-Absorption begins in the stomach (20%)
-Higher concentration = faster absorption (stronger the alcohol, faster you’ll get drunk)
-Food slows down absorption
Once a neurotransmitter is released into cleft, how do you stop it from working?
-Metabolized liver breaks down alcohol
-Enzymatic breakdown begins in the stomach
-About 1 standard drink per hour
-Alcohol dehydrogenase (enzymes)
-more in men than in women
-genetic patterns -- more in certain populations
-small amount (5%) of alcohol excreted in urine and by lungs (breathalyzers)
Alcohol Health Issues: Heart and Blood Vessels
-Moderate use (1 drink/day) appears to help heart (decreases cardiovascular disease)
-Alcohol is metabolized before fat
-Fat accumulation in liver cells
-Liver cells swell and burst
-Scar tissue formation… (cirrhosis)
-Nervous system problems (“wet brain”?)
-Fetal alcohol syndrome
-moves across placenta
-birth defects (are common)
Alcohol Health Issues: Nervous System -- Short-Term
-Depresses activity of all neurons
-neurons in higher thinking centers affected first (e.g., inhibitory neurons, motor control)
-At high levels, inhibits neurons for consciousness and breathing
-As alcohol level increases, inhibition of neurons associated with consciousness
What factors influence your drinking state?
Blood -- Specialized Connective Tissue (review)
-cells and platelets, soluble protein, suspended in plasma?
-functions: transportation of oxygen nutrients (glucose ions, etc.) ad wastes (CO2, etc)
-regulation of body temperature and buffers pH
-protections of immune walls
-White blood cells
-Red blood cells
-LOOK IN CIRCULATORY PACKET
Red Blood Cells
-drop of blood contains several millions of RBC
-Transport oxygen from lungs to cells
Red Blood Cell Structure
-maximizes surface area/volume ratio
-flexible: easy movement
-No nuclei, few organelles
-mostly sac of the protein hemoglobin
-Each made of proteins
-Each part contains 4 iron ions that bind to oxygen
-Each RBC contains 280 million hemoglobin molecules
-How’s it related to ATP?
-Anemia means you don’t have enough iron, which carries oxygen, which is used for cellular respiration, which makes ATP (energy), so anemia can slow down and eventually kill cells
-Look over sickle celled anemia
-Lack of oxygen = anemia
-Internally bleeding, and you don’t know it
Regulation of RBC
1. Kidney senses O2 levels in blood
2. If low, kidney releases erythropoietin (EPO)
3. EPO acts on red bone marrow to increase RBC production
4. Mature RBCs released
5. Increased blood O2 levels
6. Kidney senses higher O2 and stops releasing EPO
-EPO: a small molecule like NT
-This is a negative feedback system
-*Know how to draw
-* LOOK IN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM PACKET
White Blood Cells -- Leukocytes
-remove damaged or abnormal cells
-warriors against disease
-Granulocytes - contain granules (sacs filled with cell-destroying chemicals)
-Agranulocytes - lack large granules (it’s not that they don’t; they’re just really small)
-*think of him acting it out
-3 Main Types:
-most abundant WBC
-first to site of infection
-engulf microbes (through phagocytosis)
-in death, release chemical that attracts more neutrophils
-contain toxins against parasitic worms
-release histamines (chemicals that attract WBC causing inflammation)
-engulf microbes, dead cells, and debris
-leave bloodstream and become macrophages
-specific immunity cells
-two types: B cells and T cells
-B Cells - B lymphocytes
-T Cells - T lymphocytes
-These are specific to adaptive immune system
-Based on presence of surface proteins on RBC (antigens)
-ABO Blood types
-Type A = A proteins
-Type B = B proteins
-Type AB = A and B proteins
-Type O = no blood typing proteins
-Antibodies: detect antigens that your body likes
-Antigens: what you have on surface (proteins)
-If wrong antigens are present, the body defines are triggered
-Deals with presence/absence of surface antigen on RBC
-No Rh factor = Rh-
-Yes Rh factor = Rh+
-Inheritance: simple/typical dominant/recessive
-Rh+ = dominated
-Rh- = recessive
-*later pregnancies are potentially problematic (now we have drugs to help)
-*Know how to do punnett square (look in circulatory packet)
-Blood Vessels (“vascular”)
-heart rates vary
-blood vessels dilate and contract
-Arranged as branching networks
-carries blood away from heart
way more important if damaged
-brings blood towards the heart
-microscopic sites of exchange
-Movement of blood towards heart
-Pressure from pumping of heart
-Back-flow valves with skeletal muscle contraction
-Microscopic blood vessels
-Sites of nutrient and gas exchange between blood and interstitial fluids
-Diffusion and pressure moves oxygen, CO2, nutrients, and other things through capillaries
-Cardiac muscle cells are packed tightly together with interweaved membranes
-Allows electrical signal to spread rapidly and the muscle cells to work together during contractions
-70 contractions per minute
-Pumps 5 liters per minute; 2,500 gallons/day
-Major cause of death in the U.S.
-High blood pressure - “hypertension”
-damaged blood vessels, capillaries = kidney damage, heart damage
-Many factors contribute -- lifestyle is important (lack of exercise; bad diet (fats and sugars); genetic factors; smoking)
-Atherosclerosis (“yellow hardening of arteries”)
-Coronary artery disease
-buildup of fatty substances (LDL) in arterial walls
-blockage occurs as a complex inflammatory response (associated with white blood cells)
-Returns interstitial fluids back to bloodstream
-Focusing on its role in protecting against disease-causing organisms
Main parts you need to know about lymphatic system
-Lymph: (fluid) when you get blister, it’s filled with this fluid
-removes old blood cells, microorganisms, debris
-T cell maturation
-lymph flows through at least one node before returning to blood stream
-packed with macrophages and lymphocytes
-When you get sick, they swell up
-Found all over body
-They help fight infection
-Breakdown macromolecules to absorbable units
-Absorption of nutrients
-Houses important bacteria
-Rid body of non-digestible wastes
-Monitors food quality
-nerves, taste buds (receptors)
-jaw, teeth, tongue, moisture
-start of chemical digestion -- Amylase (enzyme that digests starch)
-Passage way for food and air
-Sensory receptors “shut off” trachea before swallowing, sends food down esophagus
-Muscular tuble that conducts food to stomach
-Movement via peristalsis
-Stores food -- expandable, controllable openings
-Mechanical and Chemical Digestion
-mixes food with secretions
-liquefies food (2-6 hours) enzyme
-breaks down connective tissue
-protein digesting enzyme
-Prevention of self-digestion
-line stomach with mucus - pH alkaline (basic)
-without HCI pepsin is inactive = pepsinogen
-high replacement rate of cells
-sphincter that keeps stuff in the stomach is weak
-acidic stomach contents move up esophagus
-stomach lining eroded by gastric juices
-use of NSAIDs (ibuprofen, etc.,)
-Nutrient absorption requires larger surface area
-Very large surface area
-circular folds: like expandable duct work
-chyme is mixed as it moves
-Villi: finger-like projections
-Microvilli: hair-like structures
Pancreas and Liver
-Liver produces bile, which aids in digestion of lipids
-Gallbladder: bile storage
-Pancreas: (behind stomach) produces digestive enzymes and pancreatic juices that neutralize stomach
-Bacteria: species that live in large intestine produce lipids and important vitamins
-Feces storage (Why? For water reabsorption and sanitation)
-Energy source = ATP formation
-Building blocks = amino acids
-Vitamins: Bv3 (niacin) used in NADH and FADH
-function as coenzymes
-Minerals: iron (helps carry oxygen) and calcium (muscle contractions)
-Essential amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins must be acquired directly from food
-Nonessential amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins can be synthesized in body
Lipids -- Review
-Large hydrocarbon chains (with lots of Hydrogen)
-Insoluble in water -- “nonpolar”
-Saturated: (with hydrogen)
-will turn into oil
-no double bonds between carbons
-will NOT turn into oil
-better to eat these types
-double-bonds between carbons change physical shape of molecules, thus its behavior
-LOOK IN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM AND NUTRITION PACKET
Functions of Fats (mostly review)
-Storage of energy; good source of energy
-Insulatory (does not conduct heat well)
-Absorption of “fat soluble” vitamins and transport them
-A, D, E, and K associated with fat, the lipids carry vitamins through bloodstream to cells
-No fat diet = death
High fat diet associated with:
-Obesity: high blood pressure and diabetes
-Cancers: colon and prostate
-Linked to atherosclerosis
-Consumed in food but most synthesized by liver
-Cholesterol binds with proteins and triglycerides to be carried around body (lipoproteins)
-Low density Lipoproteins (LDL): carry cholesterol to cells and also potentially deposits them along artery walls
-High density lipoproteins (HDL): carry cholesterol away from cells and potentially away from artery walls
-We want high levels of HDL and low levels of LDL
What fats to eat?
-Saturated fats raise LDL levels
-fats from beef, pig, and chicken
-Trans fats raise LDL and lower HDL
-Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (rich in omega-3 and omega-6 F.A.) lowers LDL
-Sources: nuts, olives, several vegetable oils, and oils in certain fish (herring, tuna, salmon, sardines)
-Predominantly from plants
-Sugars, starches, and fiber
-Rich in energy, also other nutrients
-Simple carbohydrates = sugars
-occur naturally in vegetables, fruit, and milk
-Complex carbohydrates = starch and fiber
-Starches: are digested (broken down) into simple sugars
We mostly consume refined sugars
-stripped of natural vitamins and fibers
-quickly converted to “blood sugars”
-How quick a food is converted to sugar in blood
-How much a food affects blood sugar levels
-High glycemic load
-Highly processed bread and cereals, potatoes, white rice
-Low glycemic load
-Whole fruit (but not grapes or bananas) and vegetables, whole grains
Blood Sugar Control
1. Pancreas: senses high blood sugar levels
2. Removes insuli
3. Release of glucagon stops
But if blood glucose drops too low:
1. Pancreas senses low blood sugar level
2. Releases glucagon
3. Glucagon signals liver to release glucose
-Amino acids to make our own proteins
-Complete proteins contain all essential amino acids
-chicken, turkey, pork, beef, lamb, fish
-Incomplete proteins don’t contain all essential amino acids
-Definition: small carbon-containing compounds (molecules)
-Coenzymes (assist enzyme functions)
-Only 13 vitamins needed in minute amounts
-Except for vitamin D, we must acquire vitamins food, sometimes with help of…?
-*SEE TABLE 15.6
-Definition: inorganic substances
-Variety of purposes
-Some needed in fairly large amounts:
-We need trace amounts of other ones
-*SEE TABLE 15.7
Why do we crave bad fats and sugars?
-Because these foods weren’t common in the past
-Because we didn’t always have it in our diet (evolution)
-Because it’s easily accessible
Cause for kidney stones?
Too much calcium
Review of Bacteria and Viruses
-made of cells
-100x smaller than human cell
-100x smaller than bacteria cell
-they often infect bacteria rather than human
Other words for intercellular
-Agents that cause disease
-Infectious agents that cause disease or illness
-Bacteria (ex: herpes): alive!
-Viruses: not alive!
-Protozoans: (ex: giardia); alive!
-Parasitic worms: alive!
-Prions (infectious proteins); not alive!
Three Lines of Body Defenses?
1. Physical and chemical barriers
-keep pathogens out
2. Internal Cellular and Chemical Defenses
-attack any pathogen-like agent or unusual cells
3. Adaptive Immune Responses
-destroy specific (targeted) invaders
-remember these invaders to elicit a quicker future response
Physical and Chemical Barriers
-Type of bodily defense
-outer layer is dead cells filled with keratin, constantly being replaced and shed
-sweat and oil produced by glands slow bacterial growth
-mucus traps microbes or cilia in respiratory system
-hydrochloric acid, pepsin, amylase
-Beneficial bacteria: in the intestines appear to limit invasion by other disease-causing microorganisms, possibly through competition
-Mucus in vagina pushes out invaders and houses beneficial bacteria that create an acidic environment
Internal Cellular and Chemical Defenses
-Type of bodily defense
-Innate, nonspecific, internal
-Many white blood cells: seek at any unknown or abnormal cell or cells with altered signaling proteins on membrane
-Natural-killer cells: attacking abnormal cells
1. Interferons: Proteins released by virus-infected cells
-attract NK cells and macrophages
-signaling neighboring cells to produce proteins to inhibit...
2. Complement systems: Groups of proteins that enhance body defenses
-circulate blood, activate when infection is detected, punching holes in membranes of invading cells
-Attract macrophages and neutrophils
-Assist these defensive cells to acquire invading cells
-Stimulate blood vessel widening -- inflammation
-increases access of white blood cells
-Body response to infection
-Redness: blood vessels dilate (increasing flow) in response to histamines
-Heat: increased blood flow elevates temperature, increasing metabolic rate of cells in infected area
-Swelling: histamines induce swelling, making capillaries more permeable (leak)
-Pain: protect infected area
Adaptive Immune Response
-Type of bodily defense
-Specific defense response and “memory”
-Defensive cells that recognize specific invader
-Lymphocytes: white blood cells responsible for adaptive immune response
-B cells (B lymphocytes)
-T cells (T lymphocytes)
-*Both of these: army I make when being invaded by particular organism
Identifying Invaders or Abnormal Cells
-MHC markers: major histocompatibility complex “markers”, proteins that label body cells as “self” or “good”
-Antigens: molecules on surface of cells recognized by defensive cells as “enemy” or “no good”
Steps in adaptive immune response
-Pathogen enters body
-Pathogen evades first two lines of body defense
-macrophage (or B cell) encounters pathogen, engulfs and digests it, then places some antigens from the pathogen onto its surface
-Specific helper T cell that recognizes the antigen
-”Antigen presenting cell” encounters specific Helper T cell that recognizes the antigen (it has a receptor for the specific antigen)
Helper T Cell (in relation to “Alert” cell)
-Huge population of Helper T cells with different receptors that recognize specific antigens
-Finding one with a receptor for a novel antigen is like finding a needle in a haystack
-Concentrate search in lymph nodes
-Call for exterminators (T and B cells)
-They sound the alarm!
-Helper T cell activated -- rapid mitotic division
-Helper T cell secretes message that activates T cells or B cells with ability to recognize the particular antigen
-Activated B or T cells - rapid mitotic division
-Appropriate B and T cells activate
-Start rapid mitotic division-making “effector cells” that recognize and attack the invading pathogen
-Activated Helper T cells and B cells are produced as “memory cells”
-Memory cells: activated Helper T cells, B, or T cells that live for months or years
-These memory cells recognize and respond to the specific antigen
-Future response to any re-invading antigen is much quicker and more robust
Sexually Transmitted BACTERIA
-May not produce noticeable symptoms (asymptomatic)
-Rapidly becoming epidemic (exists in high proportions)
-One of the oldest known STDs
-Infection rate low across U.S
-Low rates in U.S., but active in certain populations
-This is a bad disease
Chlamydia and Gonorrhea. Symptoms? Cure?
-Both infect mucous membranes (anything secreting mucus)
-urethra, vagina, oviducts, endometrium, anus, throat
-urinary tract infections
-men: burning/itching of urethra; abnormal discharge
-Women: infection of reproductive tract; pain/burning; abnormal vaginal discharge
-Treatable with antibiotics
-Chronic infection may cause sterility (for women)
-scarring of oviducts
-Invades mucous membranes or breaks in skin
-Can cross placenta to infect fetus
-Treatable with antibiotics (mostly)
-later stages hard to cure (by 3rd stage, damage to nervous system, blood vessels, etc.)
-There are three stages (he won’t ask us about these)
Sexually Transmitted VIRUSES
-Herpes Simplex Viruses
-HSV1: mostly active around mouth
-HSV2: mostly active around genitals
Herpes Simplex Viruses. Spread? Symptoms? Cure?
-Spread by contact
-infects mucous membranes
-can infect broken skin
-Most contagious with active sores/blisters
-can be spread even without blisters
-outbreaks = blisters
-can be accompanied by fever, aching muscles, swollen lymph glands
-genital herpes appear 2-20 days after infection
-No cure of HSV
-viruses can hide from adaptive immune system
-severe infections to newborns possible
Why aren’t they called sexually transmitted organisms, instead of pathogens/agents?
-They’re not all alive!
Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs). Symptoms? Treatment?
-Genital warts are symptoms of HPvs
-Not the same viruses that cause warts on hands and feet
-Highly contagious, spread by contact
-warts of different shapes
-warts in vagina, anus, or cervix are not readily visible
-most people don’t recognize that they are infected
-Body’s defenses can fight and often eliminate HPVs
-Linked to cancers
-some are difficult to eliminate, and have been linked to cancers
-cervical, penile, anal, throat
-Treatable by freezing, burning, laser, surgery, chemical
-Epidemic in U.S.: 50% of sexually active people will acquire an HPV, but rates are declining because of vaccines
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
-Causes “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome” (AIDS)
-Infects mucous membranes, through broken skin, or blood to blood
-blood, semen, vaginal secretions all carry the virus
-Helper T cells: HIV commonly infect Helper T cells
-This virus damages advantages adaptive immune response
-Mothers can infect offspring across placenta, during delivery, or in breast milk
Stages of HIV?
-Early Immune Failure and AIDS
Stages of HIV: Initial Infection
-Virus replicates in body
-Adaptive immune system produces antibodies against virus (defends itself)
-Often asymptomatic, but some people have enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue, fever
-brain disorders possible
-Contagious: individuals at this stage are contagious
-even though they may not know they’re infected
Stages of HIV: Asymptomatic Stage
-Over weeks to years
-Adaptive immune system defends against virus
-individuals feel healthy, show no signs of disease
-Virus retreats to certain organs, particularly lymph nodes
-Replicates in lymph nodes
Stages of HIV: Initial Disease
-Eventually, immune system falters
-Swelling of lymph nodes
-HIV, or other organisms, infect central and peripheral nervous system
Stages of HIV: Early Immune Failure and AIDS
-Immune system begins to collapse
-Helper T cell numbers contribute to drop
-Infections appear, associated with a weak immune system
-Opportunistic pathogens and cancers invade
-Opportunistic pathogens invade
-Immune system collapses
What does AIDS stand for?
-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Are antibacterial medicine successful against viruses?
-No, but we go to doctor to get some when we get the flu.
What metallic ion in the hemoglobin molecule is responsible for binding oxygen?
Why is atherosclerosis especially dangerous when found in the coronary arteries?
-This can restrict blood flow to the heart muscle
-It can lead to a heart attack, that then deprives the rest of the body of blood flow
Which type of blood vessel has the primary function of allowing the exchange of materials between blood and cell bodies?
What is the cancer of the white blood cells called?
Blood that is oxygen poor and heavy with carbon dioxide wastes travels through ______ from body tissues back to the lungs
Capillaries (not sure)
What is the function of the lymph nodes?
Lymph nodes are filled with macrophages and lymphocytes that destroy disease causing agents and infected cells in lymph prior to its return to the blood
What is normal blood pressure?
Normal blood pressure is considered to be 120/80. What does the “120” represent?
The highest ideal arterial pressure for someone at rest.
At the entrance to a capillary bed, sphincters (rings of smooth muscle) regulate blood flow by relaxing or contracting. But such sphincters will not shut off blood flow to the capillary bed completely because…
-The blood that would normally flow to the capillary bed would have to be sent to capillaries elsewhere causing increased blood pressure
Which white blood cell type has specifically evolved to defend against parasitic worms?
What is hemoglobin made up of?
A protein consisting of several polypeptides combined with irons
The heart is considered to be a double pump because?
The two sides of the heart beat independently, controlled by two separate mechanisms
Oxygen, and much of carbon dioxide, is transported by:
Red blood cells
What is the smallest blood cell?
How many types of white blood cells?
Functions of the lymphatic system?
-Transports products from fat digestion from the small intestines to the blood stream
-Helps the body defend against disease-causing organisms
-Returns excess interstitial fluids to the bloodstream
Major functions of the white blood cells?
-Removing waste and toxins
-Removing damaged or abnormal cells
-FIghting against pathogens, like bacteria
What is the liquid portion of blood?
All formed elements in blood, including red and white blood cells, arise from?
Red bone marrow
You are suffering from anemia and have insufficient oxygen in your blood. What would likely show on your blood test?
Your red blood cell count is low
A person with blood type AB can receive blood from which types?
What stimulates the production of red blood cells?
The hormone, erythropoietin
What is the value of dietary fiber?
-Helps prevent constipation and hemorrhoids
-Lowers LDL levels in blood, thus appears to be good for cardiovascular health
-Bacteria in the large intestine can digest some fiber, thus providing some useful nutrients to the body
What is the major reason why you eat proteins?
-To acquire amino acids that your body needs to build its own proteins
The primary function of the stomach _______.
-Short-term storage and digestion (breakdown) of food into smaller molecules
Essential amino acids must be acquired from food. Nonessential amino acids _________.
-Can be synthesized in the body
Why are vitamins needed only in very small amounts?
-The body can use them over and over as they are not broken down or destroyed during use
You are told by some supplement sales person that taking very high levels of vitamin A might be good for your scaly, itchy skin. But what might be a potential problem with this sales pitch?
-Excessively high levels of vitamin A is associated with dry, scaly skin
Which mineral is the only one that does not have a known effect from excessive consumption?
The liver has many functions in the body, but what is listed as the main function of the liver for digestion?
-To aid in digestion by producing bile for use in the small intestine
What is the purpose of villi?
-Absorption of nutrients
What is the primary role of the large intestine in digestion?
-To absorb water from food residue
-To store feces, thus allowing organized elimination of waste from the body
-To house useful bacteria which help break down indigestible food and produce important vitamins
What is a potential problem with consuming excessive doses of vitamin C?
What is the function of bile?
-Aids in the breakdown and digestion of fats
What was the change in the percentage of people considered obese in Nevada between 2011 and 2013?
-The percentage increased from 20-24% to 25-30%
How do pancreatic enzymes move from the pancreas to the liver?
-This does not happen
How many major digestive enzymes (listed in the book)?
How many layers of muscle does the stomach have?
What is the correct order for food as it passes through the organs of the digestive system?
-Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
Which combination of organs is involved in the chemical digestion of proteins?
-Stomach and small intestine
Digestion is the process by which the body breaks down the large, complex molecules we eat into smaller units. Absorption is the process by which these smaller molecules are then brought into the bloodstream and delivered to cells. True or false?
How does your body recognize that the bacteria are foreign to the body?
-Defensive cells recognize molecules, called antigens, on the surface of the bacteria
Statements about HPV that are true?
-Genital warts may be caused by one of several human papillomaviruses, not just a single virus
-HPV infection is common and statistic indicate that about 50% of sexually active people in the U.S. will acquire an infection
-The warts associated with HPVs may not be readily evident and often occur within the vagina, cervix, or anus, thus many infected individuals do not know that they are infected
What is the most frequently occurring bacterial STD in the United States?
What are the Natural Killer cells doing to the cancerous cell?
-Using proteins to create holes in the cancerous cell’s membrane
What is the third step of the adaptive immune response?
Helper T cell is alerted to the presence of an antigen
At the beginning of the cycle and at the end, HIV is shown to have a particular type of genetic material. What is the genetic material?
What causes genital herpes?
-One of two herpes viruses (known as HSV-1 and HSV-2)
What does a defensive cell place on the surface of its plasma membrane (specifically on its MHC markers)?
Antigens from a bacteria
What will cure genital herpes?
Nothing. It cannot currently be cured.
What is the function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) markers?
To identify the cells that belong to the body
If a pathogen (like a bacteria or virus) is able to get through the body’s first line of defense, and then overwhelms the second line of defense, and is only slowed briefly by the third line of defense before it, too, is overwhelmed, what is the body’s next defense?
Nothing. The body will die because there is no other line of defense.
What is a potential serious consequence of chlamydia and gonorrhea infection for women?
Scarring of the oviduct leading to sterility
Which STD is not caused by bacteria (but instead is caused by a virus), and therefore, could not be stopped by taking anti-bacteria medications (antibiotics)?
Which cell plays an important role in the adaptive immune response, but is actually part of the innate defensive system?
If you punch holes through skin to “anchor” jewelry studs, which line of defense are you potentially undermining?
Physical and chemical surface barriers
Which type of cells are part of your “innate, nonspecific internal defenses”? Which type is NOT part of them?
Natural killer cells
NOT: Helper T cells
What is the term used to describe a molecule, organism, or other agent (e.g., virus) that threatens the body?