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Flashcards in Test 4 - Final Deck (164):
1

Psychoactive Drug

-Natural or synthetic molecules that alter communication between neurons:
-Releases NTs
-/Stimulates/Inhibits NTs
-Delay Nt removal/breakdown
-Acts like a NT by binding to NT
-stimulate receptors on postsynaptic neurons
-Prevent NT action
-block receptors (prevent NT action)

2

Physical response to chronic use: Tolerance

-Def: progressive decrease in effectiveness of a drug

-Require more drug… longer/more frequent doses to produce the same effect

-Body tries to maintain homeostasis in the face of drugs
-Increases enzymatic production to more quickly breakdown the drug
-Decreases number of receptors on postsynaptic neurons

3

Dependency

-Physical changes to nervous system

-Drug is required by user for their physical or physiological well-being

-No longer able to produce “appropriate” or “normal” responses because of physical changes (in nervous system)

-Drug required to maintain level of “homeostasis”

-Withdrawal symptoms occur when drug use stop signs

4

Drugs that most quickly lead to dependency?

-They stimulate “pleasure” centers of the brain

-Main examples:
-Cocaine
-Amphetamines
-Morphine/Opiates
-Nicotine

5

Cocaine

-Increases residence time in synaptic gap of NT’s
-Dopamine - blocking reuptake
-associated with pleasure centers of the brain

-Norepinephrine - simulates (or stimulates?) release
-normally involved in fight-or-flight response

-Results in feeling of confidence, alertness, pleasure, and power

-Snorted, smoked, or injected

6

Positive effects of cocaine are short-lived and then?

-Lasts no more than 90 minutes

-Followed by a “crash”... feeling anxiety, depression, fatigue (opposite of what you feel while on it)

-Produces a “craving” for more cocaine

7

Cocaine Health Issues?

-Cardiovascular
-Increases heart rate, blood pressure, and interferes with nerves that regulate heartbeat

-Constricts arteries - increases blood pressure

-Regulation of heart -- can result in heart attack or stroke

-Respiration
-Interferes with neurons controlling respiration

-As cocaine wears off, activity in respiration centers of brain become depressed -- potentially causing respiratory failure

-Damaged nerves, membranes, blood vessels of the nose (repeated snorting)

8

Amphetamines

-Synthetic stimulants that interferes with reuptake and increases release of dopamine and norepinephrine

-Effects dopamine and norepinephrine

-Effects of can last for hours

-In low, controlled doses, prescription versions of these drugs increases alertness, concentration, reduced fatigue

9

Meth

-Street form of amphetamine

-Smoked (most common), ingested as pills, crushed then snorted, or injected

-Behavioral modification

-Prolonged use appears to have long-term negative consequences to nervous system

-Chronic meth users often suffer from impairments to memory and emotional centers of brain

-Induces euphoria, feelings of high self-esteem, increased libido, insomnia, mania

-Long-term and high doses: anxiety, paranoia, movement disorders, also hallucinations, and psychotic behavior

-(Plug reuptake pumps)

10

Hallucinogenic Drug?

-Ecstasy

-A diverse array of drugs -- similar effects (like mushrooms, LSD, etc.)

-Visual, auditory, or other hallucinations

-Ecstasy (MDMA) or for all hallucinogenic drugs Effects:
-Serotonin (sense of well-being)
-Acetylcholine promotes release of serotonin and dopamine
-Norepinephrine

11

Ecstasy Physiological Effects?

-Stimulant

-Causes HYPERthermia (increased body temp - heat stroke)

-Dehydration
-If water intake is increased substantially, sodium and potassium can become diluted. Sodium needed for action potential in neuron. Better to drink something with electrolytes (gatorade)

-Ecstasy pills/liquids often contain other drugs
-Effect is more meth-like

12

Ecstasy Long-Term Effects

-Degradation of dopamine/serotonin releasing neurons

-Chronic…?

13

Opioids

-Affects opioid receptors

-Produce “morphine-like” effects -- pain relief

-Variety of drugs: morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, tramadol, and heroin

-Easily leads to addiction, physical dependence, thus withdrawal
-Respiratory distress (death)

-Fentanyl and carfentanil -- extremely potent, thus dangerous

14

Alcohol

-Depresses (slows down) neuron activity in the brain (of ALL)

-Tends to depress inhibitory neurons quickest

-Excitatory neurons run amuck AT FIRST (because they don’t have breaks on them)

-Release from inhibitory controls tends to reduce anxiety and creates a sense of wellbeing

15

Ethanol

-(Alcohol)

-The alcohol in every “alcoholic” drink -- very small molecule

-Both water and lipid soluble (will enter cell very quickly; readily gets into cells)

-Standard “drink” = 0.5 oz of ethanol(/alcohol?)

-Intoxicating effects begins quickly as it is absorbed
-Absorption begins in the stomach (20%)

-Higher concentration = faster absorption (stronger the alcohol, faster you’ll get drunk)

-Food slows down absorption

16

Once a neurotransmitter is released into cleft, how do you stop it from working?

-Reuptake

-Enzymes

17

Alcohol Elimination

-Metabolized liver breaks down alcohol

-Enzymatic breakdown begins in the stomach

-About 1 standard drink per hour

-Alcohol dehydrogenase (enzymes)
-more in men than in women
-genetic patterns -- more in certain populations

-small amount (5%) of alcohol excreted in urine and by lungs (breathalyzers)

18

Alcohol Health Issues: Heart and Blood Vessels

-Moderate use (1 drink/day) appears to help heart (decreases cardiovascular disease)

-High consumption…
-Liver disease
-Alcohol is metabolized before fat
-Fat accumulation in liver cells
-Liver cells swell and burst
-Scar tissue formation… (cirrhosis)

-Cardiovascular damage

-Nervous system problems (“wet brain”?)

-Fetal alcohol syndrome
-moves across placenta
-birth defects (are common)

19

Alcohol Health Issues: Nervous System -- Short-Term

-Depresses activity of all neurons
-neurons in higher thinking centers affected first (e.g., inhibitory neurons, motor control)

-At high levels, inhibits neurons for consciousness and breathing

-As alcohol level increases, inhibition of neurons associated with consciousness

20

What factors influence your drinking state?

-Size

-Weight

-Sex

-Genes

21

Blood -- Specialized Connective Tissue (review)

-cells and platelets, soluble protein, suspended in plasma?

-functions: transportation of oxygen nutrients (glucose ions, etc.) ad wastes (CO2, etc)

-regulation of body temperature and buffers pH

-protections of immune walls

22

Blood Composition

-Plasma

-White blood cells

-Red blood cells

-LOOK IN CIRCULATORY PACKET

23

Red Blood Cells

-”Erythrocytes”

-Abundant
-drop of blood contains several millions of RBC

-Transport oxygen from lungs to cells

24

Red Blood Cell Structure

-Biconcave disc
-maximizes surface area/volume ratio
-flexible: easy movement

-No nuclei, few organelles
-mostly sac of the protein hemoglobin

25

Hemoglobin

-Protein

-Each made of proteins

-Each part contains 4 iron ions that bind to oxygen

-Each RBC contains 280 million hemoglobin molecules

26

Anemia

-How’s it related to ATP?
-Anemia means you don’t have enough iron, which carries oxygen, which is used for cellular respiration, which makes ATP (energy), so anemia can slow down and eventually kill cells

-Look over sickle celled anemia

-Lack of oxygen = anemia

-Cardiovascular disease

-Internally bleeding, and you don’t know it

-Ex-heroin addict

27

Regulation of RBC

1. Kidney senses O2 levels in blood

2. If low, kidney releases erythropoietin (EPO)

3. EPO acts on red bone marrow to increase RBC production

4. Mature RBCs released

5. Increased blood O2 levels

6. Kidney senses higher O2 and stops releasing EPO

-EPO: a small molecule like NT

-This is a negative feedback system

-*Know how to draw

-* LOOK IN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM PACKET

28

White Blood Cells -- Leukocytes

-”Housekeeping”
-remove damaged or abnormal cells

-Immune cells
-warriors against disease

-Types:
-Granulocytes - contain granules (sacs filled with cell-destroying chemicals)

-Agranulocytes - lack large granules (it’s not that they don’t; they’re just really small)
-*think of him acting it out

29

Granulocytes

-3 Main Types:
1. Neutrophils
-most abundant WBC
-first to site of infection
-engulf microbes (through phagocytosis)
-in death, release chemical that attracts more neutrophils

2. Eosinophils
-contain toxins against parasitic worms

3. Basophils
-release histamines (chemicals that attract WBC causing inflammation)

30

Agranulocytes

-Monocytes:
-engulf microbes, dead cells, and debris
-largest WBC
-leave bloodstream and become macrophages

-Lymphocytes:
-specific immunity cells
-two types: B cells and T cells
-B Cells - B lymphocytes
-T Cells - T lymphocytes
-These are specific to adaptive immune system

31

Blood Types

-Based on presence of surface proteins on RBC (antigens)

-ABO Blood types
-Type A = A proteins
-Type B = B proteins
-Type AB = A and B proteins
-Type O = no blood typing proteins

-Antibodies: detect antigens that your body likes

-Antigens: what you have on surface (proteins)

-If wrong antigens are present, the body defines are triggered

32

Rh Factor

-Deals with presence/absence of surface antigen on RBC

-No Rh factor = Rh-

-Yes Rh factor = Rh+

-Inheritance: simple/typical dominant/recessive
-Rh+ = dominated
-Rh- = recessive

-*later pregnancies are potentially problematic (now we have drugs to help)

-*Know how to do punnett square (look in circulatory packet)

33

Cardiovascular System

-Heart (“cardio”)

-Blood Vessels (“vascular”)

-lungs

-Active system
-heart rates vary
-blood vessels dilate and contract

34

Blood Vessels

-Conduct blood

-Arranged as branching networks

1. Arteries:
-carries blood away from heart
-with oxygen
way more important if damaged

2. Veins:
-brings blood towards the heart
-without oxygen

3. Capillaries:
-microscopic sites of exchange

35

Veins

-Movement of blood towards heart
-Gravity
-Pressure from pumping of heart
-Back-flow valves with skeletal muscle contraction

36

Capillaries

-Microscopic blood vessels

-Sites of nutrient and gas exchange between blood and interstitial fluids

-Diffusion and pressure moves oxygen, CO2, nutrients, and other things through capillaries

37

Heart Contractions

-Cardiac muscle cells are packed tightly together with interweaved membranes

-Allows electrical signal to spread rapidly and the muscle cells to work together during contractions

-70 contractions per minute

-Pumps 5 liters per minute; 2,500 gallons/day

38

Cardiovascular Disease

-Major cause of death in the U.S.

-High blood pressure - “hypertension”
-damaged blood vessels, capillaries = kidney damage, heart damage

-Many factors contribute -- lifestyle is important (lack of exercise; bad diet (fats and sugars); genetic factors; smoking)

-Atherosclerosis (“yellow hardening of arteries”)

-Coronary artery disease
-buildup of fatty substances (LDL) in arterial walls
-blockage occurs as a complex inflammatory response (associated with white blood cells)

39

Lymphatic System

-Returns interstitial fluids back to bloodstream

-Focusing on its role in protecting against disease-causing organisms

40

Main parts you need to know about lymphatic system

-Lymph: (fluid) when you get blister, it’s filled with this fluid

-Lymphatic vessels

-Lymph nodes

-Spleen
-lymphocyte production
-removes old blood cells, microorganisms, debris

-Thymus
-T cell maturation

41

Lymph Nodes

-Filters lymph
-lymph flows through at least one node before returning to blood stream
-packed with macrophages and lymphocytes

-When you get sick, they swell up

-Found all over body

-They help fight infection

42

Digestive System

-Breakdown macromolecules to absorbable units

-Absorption of nutrients

-Houses important bacteria

-Rid body of non-digestible wastes

43

Mouth

-Monitors food quality
-nerves, taste buds (receptors)

-Mechanical digestion
-jaw, teeth, tongue, moisture

-Saliva
-start of chemical digestion -- Amylase (enzyme that digests starch)

44

Pharynx

-”Throat”

-Passage way for food and air

-Sensory receptors “shut off” trachea before swallowing, sends food down esophagus

45

Esophagus

-Muscular tuble that conducts food to stomach

-Movement via peristalsis

46

Stomach

-Muscular structure

-Stores food -- expandable, controllable openings

-Mechanical and Chemical Digestion

-Mechanical:
-mixes food with secretions
-liquefies food (2-6 hours) enzyme

47

Chemical Digestion

-Hydrochloric Acid
-breaks down connective tissue
-kills bacteria

-Pepsin
-protein digesting enzyme

-Prevention of self-digestion
-line stomach with mucus - pH alkaline (basic)
-without HCI pepsin is inactive = pepsinogen
-high replacement rate of cells

48

Heartburn

-sphincter that keeps stuff in the stomach is weak

-acidic stomach contents move up esophagus

49

Ulcers

-”peptic ulcers”

-stomach lining eroded by gastric juices

-causes:
-use of NSAIDs (ibuprofen, etc.,)
-helicobacter pylori

50

Small Intestine

-Nutrient absorption requires larger surface area

-Very large surface area
-circular folds: like expandable duct work
-chyme is mixed as it moves

-Villi: finger-like projections

-Microvilli: hair-like structures

51

Pancreas and Liver

-Liver produces bile, which aids in digestion of lipids

-Gallbladder: bile storage

-Pancreas: (behind stomach) produces digestive enzymes and pancreatic juices that neutralize stomach

52

Large Intestine

-Water (re)absorption

-Vitamin absorption

-Bacteria: species that live in large intestine produce lipids and important vitamins

-Feces storage (Why? For water reabsorption and sanitation)

-Feces elimination

53

Nutrients

-Energy source = ATP formation

-Building blocks = amino acids

-Vitamins: Bv3 (niacin) used in NADH and FADH
-function as coenzymes

-Minerals: iron (helps carry oxygen) and calcium (muscle contractions)

54

Essential Nutrients

-Essential amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins must be acquired directly from food

55

Nonessential Nutrients

-Nonessential amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins can be synthesized in body

56

Lipids -- Review

-Large hydrocarbon chains (with lots of Hydrogen)

-Insoluble in water -- “nonpolar”

-Saturated: (with hydrogen)
-will turn into oil
-no double bonds between carbons

-Unsaturated:
-will NOT turn into oil
-better to eat these types
-double-bonds between carbons change physical shape of molecules, thus its behavior
-LOOK IN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM AND NUTRITION PACKET

-Trans fats
-hydrogenated oils

57

Functions of Fats (mostly review)

-Storage of energy; good source of energy

-Structural components

-Insulatory (does not conduct heat well)

-Protection

-Absorption of “fat soluble” vitamins and transport them
-A, D, E, and K associated with fat, the lipids carry vitamins through bloodstream to cells

-No fat diet = death

58

High fat diet associated with:

-Obesity: high blood pressure and diabetes

-Cancers: colon and prostate

-Linked to atherosclerosis

59

Cholesterol

-Consumed in food but most synthesized by liver

-Cholesterol binds with proteins and triglycerides to be carried around body (lipoproteins)
-Low density Lipoproteins (LDL): carry cholesterol to cells and also potentially deposits them along artery walls

-High density lipoproteins (HDL): carry cholesterol away from cells and potentially away from artery walls

-We want high levels of HDL and low levels of LDL

60

What fats to eat?

-Saturated fats raise LDL levels
-fats from beef, pig, and chicken

-Trans fats raise LDL and lower HDL

-Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (rich in omega-3 and omega-6 F.A.) lowers LDL
-Sources: nuts, olives, several vegetable oils, and oils in certain fish (herring, tuna, salmon, sardines)

61

Carbohydrates

-Predominantly from plants

-Sugars, starches, and fiber

-Rich in energy, also other nutrients

-Simple carbohydrates = sugars
-monosaccharides, disaccharides
-occur naturally in vegetables, fruit, and milk

-Complex carbohydrates = starch and fiber
-Starches: are digested (broken down) into simple sugars

-Fiber: undigested

We mostly consume refined sugars
-stripped of natural vitamins and fibers
-quickly converted to “blood sugars”

62

Glycemic Response

-How quick a food is converted to sugar in blood

-How much a food affects blood sugar levels
-High glycemic load
-Highly processed bread and cereals, potatoes, white rice

-Low glycemic load
-Whole fruit (but not grapes or bananas) and vegetables, whole grains

63

Blood Sugar Control

Hormone controlled

1. Pancreas: senses high blood sugar levels

2. Removes insuli

3. Release of glucagon stops

But if blood glucose drops too low:
1. Pancreas senses low blood sugar level

2. Releases glucagon

3. Glucagon signals liver to release glucose

64

Proteins

-Amino acids to make our own proteins

-Complete proteins contain all essential amino acids
-chicken, turkey, pork, beef, lamb, fish

-Incomplete proteins don’t contain all essential amino acids
-beans

65

Vitamins

-Definition: small carbon-containing compounds (molecules)

-Coenzymes (assist enzyme functions)

-Only 13 vitamins needed in minute amounts

-Except for vitamin D, we must acquire vitamins food, sometimes with help of…?

-*SEE TABLE 15.6

66

Minerals

-Definition: inorganic substances

-Variety of purposes

-Some needed in fairly large amounts:
-calcium
-phosphorus
-magnesium
-potassium
-sodium
-sulfur

-We need trace amounts of other ones

-*SEE TABLE 15.7

67

Why do we crave bad fats and sugars?

-Because these foods weren’t common in the past

-Because we didn’t always have it in our diet (evolution)

-Because it’s easily accessible

68

Cause for kidney stones?

Too much calcium

69

Review of Bacteria and Viruses

-Bacteria:
-made of cells
-100x smaller than human cell
-alive

-Viruses:
-100x smaller than bacteria cell
-they often infect bacteria rather than human
-not alive

70

Other words for intercellular

-Extracellular

-Interstitial

71

Pathogens

-Agents that cause disease

-Infectious agents that cause disease or illness

-Bacteria (ex: herpes): alive!

-Viruses: not alive!

-Protozoans: (ex: giardia); alive!

-Fungi: alive!

-Parasitic worms: alive!

-Prions (infectious proteins); not alive!

72

Three Lines of Body Defenses?

1. Physical and chemical barriers
-keep pathogens out

2. Internal Cellular and Chemical Defenses
-attack any pathogen-like agent or unusual cells

3. Adaptive Immune Responses
-destroy specific (targeted) invaders
-remember these invaders to elicit a quicker future response

73

Physical and Chemical Barriers

-Type of bodily defense

-Skin
-outer layer is dead cells filled with keratin, constantly being replaced and shed
-sweat and oil produced by glands slow bacterial growth

-Mucus membranes
-mucus traps microbes or cilia in respiratory system

-Chemical barriers
-hydrochloric acid, pepsin, amylase

-Beneficial bacteria: in the intestines appear to limit invasion by other disease-causing microorganisms, possibly through competition

-Mucus in vagina pushes out invaders and houses beneficial bacteria that create an acidic environment

74

Internal Cellular and Chemical Defenses

-Type of bodily defense

-Innate, nonspecific, internal

-Innate

-Nonspecific

-Defensive cells

-Many white blood cells: seek at any unknown or abnormal cell or cells with altered signaling proteins on membrane

-Natural-killer cells: attacking abnormal cells

75

Defensive Proteins

Two Types:
1. Interferons: Proteins released by virus-infected cells
-attract NK cells and macrophages
-signaling neighboring cells to produce proteins to inhibit...

2. Complement systems: Groups of proteins that enhance body defenses
-circulate blood, activate when infection is detected, punching holes in membranes of invading cells
-Attract macrophages and neutrophils
-Assist these defensive cells to acquire invading cells
-Stimulate blood vessel widening -- inflammation
-increases access of white blood cells

76

Inflammation

-Body response to infection

-Redness: blood vessels dilate (increasing flow) in response to histamines

-Heat: increased blood flow elevates temperature, increasing metabolic rate of cells in infected area

-Swelling: histamines induce swelling, making capillaries more permeable (leak)

-Pain: protect infected area

77

Adaptive Immune Response

-Type of bodily defense

-Specific defense response and “memory”

-Defensive cells that recognize specific invader

-Lymphocytes: white blood cells responsible for adaptive immune response
-B cells (B lymphocytes)

-T cells (T lymphocytes)

-*Both of these: army I make when being invaded by particular organism

78

Identifying Invaders or Abnormal Cells

-MHC markers: major histocompatibility complex “markers”, proteins that label body cells as “self” or “good”

-Antigens: molecules on surface of cells recognized by defensive cells as “enemy” or “no good”

79

Steps in adaptive immune response

1. Threat

2. Detection

3. Alert

4. Alarm

5. Attack

6. Surveillance

80

Threat

-Pathogen enters body

-Pathogen evades first two lines of body defense

81

Detection

-macrophage (or B cell) encounters pathogen, engulfs and digests it, then places some antigens from the pathogen onto its surface

82

Alert

-Specific helper T cell that recognizes the antigen

-”Antigen presenting cell” encounters specific Helper T cell that recognizes the antigen (it has a receptor for the specific antigen)

83

Helper T Cell (in relation to “Alert” cell)

-Huge population of Helper T cells with different receptors that recognize specific antigens

-Finding one with a receptor for a novel antigen is like finding a needle in a haystack

-Concentrate search in lymph nodes

-Call for exterminators (T and B cells)

-They sound the alarm!

84

Alarm

-(Activation)

-Helper T cell activated -- rapid mitotic division

-Helper T cell secretes message that activates T cells or B cells with ability to recognize the particular antigen

85

Attack

-(Defense)

-Activated B or T cells - rapid mitotic division

-Appropriate B and T cells activate

-Start rapid mitotic division-making “effector cells” that recognize and attack the invading pathogen

86

Surveillance

-Activated Helper T cells and B cells are produced as “memory cells”

-Memory cells: activated Helper T cells, B, or T cells that live for months or years

-These memory cells recognize and respond to the specific antigen

-Future response to any re-invading antigen is much quicker and more robust

87

Sexually Transmitted BACTERIA

-Chlamydia

-Gonorrhea

-Syphilis

88

Chlamydia

-May not produce noticeable symptoms (asymptomatic)

-Highly contagious

-Rapidly becoming epidemic (exists in high proportions)

89

Gonorrhea

-One of the oldest known STDs

-Infection rate low across U.S

90

Syphilis

-Low rates in U.S., but active in certain populations

-This is a bad disease

91

Chlamydia and Gonorrhea. Symptoms? Cure?

-Both infect mucous membranes (anything secreting mucus)
-urethra, vagina, oviducts, endometrium, anus, throat

-Common Symptoms:
-urinary tract infections
-men: burning/itching of urethra; abnormal discharge
-Women: infection of reproductive tract; pain/burning; abnormal vaginal discharge

-Treatable with antibiotics

-Chronic infection may cause sterility (for women)
-scarring of oviducts

92

Syphilis

-Invades mucous membranes or breaks in skin

-Can cross placenta to infect fetus

-Treatable with antibiotics (mostly)
-later stages hard to cure (by 3rd stage, damage to nervous system, blood vessels, etc.)

-There are three stages (he won’t ask us about these)

93

Sexually Transmitted VIRUSES

-Herpes Simplex Viruses
-HSV1: mostly active around mouth
-HSV2: mostly active around genitals

94

Herpes Simplex Viruses. Spread? Symptoms? Cure?

-Very contagious

-Spread by contact
-infects mucous membranes
-can infect broken skin

-Most contagious with active sores/blisters
-can be spread even without blisters

-Common Symptoms:
-outbreaks = blisters
-can be accompanied by fever, aching muscles, swollen lymph glands
-genital herpes appear 2-20 days after infection
-sometimes asymptomatic

-No cure of HSV
-viruses can hide from adaptive immune system
-severe infections to newborns possible

95

Why aren’t they called sexually transmitted organisms, instead of pathogens/agents?

-They’re not all alive!

96

Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs). Symptoms? Treatment?

-Genital warts are symptoms of HPvs

-Not the same viruses that cause warts on hands and feet

-Highly contagious, spread by contact

-Common Symptoms:
-warts of different shapes
-warts in vagina, anus, or cervix are not readily visible
-most people don’t recognize that they are infected

-Body’s defenses can fight and often eliminate HPVs

-Linked to cancers
-some are difficult to eliminate, and have been linked to cancers
-cervical, penile, anal, throat

-Treatable by freezing, burning, laser, surgery, chemical

-Epidemic in U.S.: 50% of sexually active people will acquire an HPV, but rates are declining because of vaccines

97

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

-Causes “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome” (AIDS)

-Infects mucous membranes, through broken skin, or blood to blood
-blood, semen, vaginal secretions all carry the virus

-Helper T cells: HIV commonly infect Helper T cells
-This virus damages advantages adaptive immune response

-Mothers can infect offspring across placenta, during delivery, or in breast milk

98

Stages of HIV?

-Initial Infection

-Asymptomatic Stage

-Initial Disease

-Early Immune Failure and AIDS

99

Stages of HIV: Initial Infection

-Virus replicates in body

-Adaptive immune system produces antibodies against virus (defends itself)

-Often asymptomatic, but some people have enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue, fever
-brain disorders possible

-Contagious: individuals at this stage are contagious
-even though they may not know they’re infected

100

Stages of HIV: Asymptomatic Stage

-Over weeks to years

-Adaptive immune system defends against virus
-individuals feel healthy, show no signs of disease

-Virus retreats to certain organs, particularly lymph nodes

-Replicates in lymph nodes

101

Stages of HIV: Initial Disease

-Eventually, immune system falters

-Swelling of lymph nodes

-Wasting syndrome
-weight loss
-diarrhea

-Neurological Disorders:
-HIV, or other organisms, infect central and peripheral nervous system

102

Stages of HIV: Early Immune Failure and AIDS

-Immune system begins to collapse
-Helper T cell numbers contribute to drop
-Symptoms accumulate

-Infections appear, associated with a weak immune system
-thrush (fungus)
-shingles (virus)

-Opportunistic pathogens and cancers invade

103

AIDS

-Opportunistic pathogens invade

-Immune system collapses

-Cancers spread

104

What does AIDS stand for?

-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

105

Are antibacterial medicine successful against viruses?

-No, but we go to doctor to get some when we get the flu.

106

What metallic ion in the hemoglobin molecule is responsible for binding oxygen?

Iron

107

Why is atherosclerosis especially dangerous when found in the coronary arteries?

-This can restrict blood flow to the heart muscle

-It can lead to a heart attack, that then deprives the rest of the body of blood flow

108

Which type of blood vessel has the primary function of allowing the exchange of materials between blood and cell bodies?

Capillaries

109

What is the cancer of the white blood cells called?

Leukemia

110

Blood that is oxygen poor and heavy with carbon dioxide wastes travels through ______ from body tissues back to the lungs

Capillaries (not sure)

111

What is the function of the lymph nodes?

Lymph nodes are filled with macrophages and lymphocytes that destroy disease causing agents and infected cells in lymph prior to its return to the blood

112

What is normal blood pressure?

120/80

113

Normal blood pressure is considered to be 120/80. What does the “120” represent?

The highest ideal arterial pressure for someone at rest.

114

At the entrance to a capillary bed, sphincters (rings of smooth muscle) regulate blood flow by relaxing or contracting. But such sphincters will not shut off blood flow to the capillary bed completely because…

-The blood that would normally flow to the capillary bed would have to be sent to capillaries elsewhere causing increased blood pressure

115

Which white blood cell type has specifically evolved to defend against parasitic worms?

Eosinophils

116

What is hemoglobin made up of?

A protein consisting of several polypeptides combined with irons

117

The heart is considered to be a double pump because?

The two sides of the heart beat independently, controlled by two separate mechanisms

118

Oxygen, and much of carbon dioxide, is transported by:

Red blood cells

119

What is the smallest blood cell?

Capillary

120

How many types of white blood cells?

Five

121

Functions of the lymphatic system?

-Transports products from fat digestion from the small intestines to the blood stream

-Helps the body defend against disease-causing organisms

-Returns excess interstitial fluids to the bloodstream

122

Major functions of the white blood cells?

-Removing waste and toxins

-Removing damaged or abnormal cells

-FIghting against pathogens, like bacteria

123

What is the liquid portion of blood?

Plasma

124

All formed elements in blood, including red and white blood cells, arise from?

Red bone marrow

125

You are suffering from anemia and have insufficient oxygen in your blood. What would likely show on your blood test?

Your red blood cell count is low

126

A person with blood type AB can receive blood from which types?

-A

-B

-O

127

What stimulates the production of red blood cells?

The hormone, erythropoietin

128

What is the value of dietary fiber?

-Helps prevent constipation and hemorrhoids

-Lowers LDL levels in blood, thus appears to be good for cardiovascular health

-Bacteria in the large intestine can digest some fiber, thus providing some useful nutrients to the body

129

What is the major reason why you eat proteins?

-To acquire amino acids that your body needs to build its own proteins

130

The primary function of the stomach _______.

-Short-term storage and digestion (breakdown) of food into smaller molecules

131

Essential amino acids must be acquired from food. Nonessential amino acids _________.

-Can be synthesized in the body

132

Why are vitamins needed only in very small amounts?

-The body can use them over and over as they are not broken down or destroyed during use

133

You are told by some supplement sales person that taking very high levels of vitamin A might be good for your scaly, itchy skin. But what might be a potential problem with this sales pitch?

-Excessively high levels of vitamin A is associated with dry, scaly skin

134

Which mineral is the only one that does not have a known effect from excessive consumption?

-Sulfur

135

The liver has many functions in the body, but what is listed as the main function of the liver for digestion?

-To aid in digestion by producing bile for use in the small intestine

136

What is the purpose of villi?

-Absorption of nutrients

137

What is the primary role of the large intestine in digestion?

-To absorb water from food residue

-To store feces, thus allowing organized elimination of waste from the body

-To house useful bacteria which help break down indigestible food and produce important vitamins

138

What is a potential problem with consuming excessive doses of vitamin C?

-Diarrhea

139

What is the function of bile?

-Aids in the breakdown and digestion of fats

140

What was the change in the percentage of people considered obese in Nevada between 2011 and 2013?

-The percentage increased from 20-24% to 25-30%

141

How do pancreatic enzymes move from the pancreas to the liver?

-This does not happen

142

How many major digestive enzymes (listed in the book)?

-10

143

How many layers of muscle does the stomach have?

-3

144

What is the correct order for food as it passes through the organs of the digestive system?

-Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus

145

Which combination of organs is involved in the chemical digestion of proteins?

-Stomach and small intestine

146

Digestion is the process by which the body breaks down the large, complex molecules we eat into smaller units. Absorption is the process by which these smaller molecules are then brought into the bloodstream and delivered to cells. True or false?

-True

147

How does your body recognize that the bacteria are foreign to the body?

-Defensive cells recognize molecules, called antigens, on the surface of the bacteria

148

Statements about HPV that are true?

-Genital warts may be caused by one of several human papillomaviruses, not just a single virus

-HPV infection is common and statistic indicate that about 50% of sexually active people in the U.S. will acquire an infection

-The warts associated with HPVs may not be readily evident and often occur within the vagina, cervix, or anus, thus many infected individuals do not know that they are infected

149

What is the most frequently occurring bacterial STD in the United States?

-Chlamydia

150

What are the Natural Killer cells doing to the cancerous cell?

-Using proteins to create holes in the cancerous cell’s membrane

151

What is the third step of the adaptive immune response?

Helper T cell is alerted to the presence of an antigen

152

At the beginning of the cycle and at the end, HIV is shown to have a particular type of genetic material. What is the genetic material?

-RNA

153

What causes genital herpes?

-One of two herpes viruses (known as HSV-1 and HSV-2)

154

What does a defensive cell place on the surface of its plasma membrane (specifically on its MHC markers)?

Antigens from a bacteria

155

What will cure genital herpes?

Nothing. It cannot currently be cured.

156

What is the function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) markers?

To identify the cells that belong to the body

157

If a pathogen (like a bacteria or virus) is able to get through the body’s first line of defense, and then overwhelms the second line of defense, and is only slowed briefly by the third line of defense before it, too, is overwhelmed, what is the body’s next defense?

Nothing. The body will die because there is no other line of defense.

158

What is a potential serious consequence of chlamydia and gonorrhea infection for women?

Scarring of the oviduct leading to sterility

159

Which STD is not caused by bacteria (but instead is caused by a virus), and therefore, could not be stopped by taking anti-bacteria medications (antibiotics)?

Genital warts

160

Which cell plays an important role in the adaptive immune response, but is actually part of the innate defensive system?

Macrophage

161

If you punch holes through skin to “anchor” jewelry studs, which line of defense are you potentially undermining?

Physical and chemical surface barriers

162

Which type of cells are part of your “innate, nonspecific internal defenses”? Which type is NOT part of them?

Neutrophils

Macrophages

Natural killer cells

NOT: Helper T cells

163

What is the term used to describe a molecule, organism, or other agent (e.g., virus) that threatens the body?

Antigen

164

What is true regarding reproduction of the human immunodeficiency virus?

It uses a human cell to reproduce