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1

When an oxygen atom forms a chemical bond with another oxygen atom, what product does this reaction produce?

A Molecule.

2

Water forms because water molecules have high cohesion (tendency to stay together). The cohesion is caused by the polarity of eat water molecule (each water molecule has opposite electrical charges on its different ends), thus a slightly positive positive hydrogen atom on one water molecule tends to form a bond with a slightly negative oxygen atom on a different water molecule. These bonds are called?

Hydrogen Bonds

3

An element can be defined as?

A pure form of matter containing only one kind of atom.

4

Which subatomic particle of an atom has a negative electrical charge?

Electron

5

The definition is, “an atom or molecule that carries an electric charge (positive or negative) resulting from the loss or gain of an electron”. What term does this define?

Ion

6

Polarity refers to the slight negative and positive electrical charges that develop on different parts of a molecule when the electrons are not shares evenly. True or false?

True.

7

Molecules and compounds that are hydrophilic tend to interact readily with water, while those that do not are referred to as hydrophobic. True or false?

True.

8

What consists of the smallest number of “simple sugars”?

Monosaccharide.

9

Proteins are large molecules made up of chains of smaller units called?

Amino Acids.

10

What are the tails of phospholipids?

Fatty acids.

11

What is formed when two sugar molecules combine?

Disaccharide.

12

Electrons reside in well-defined “energy levels” around the nucleus of the atom. What is the name for these electron energy levels?
Shells.

Shells.

13

What is not an element and is instead a molecule made of two different types of atoms (Hydrogen, Carbon, Water, or Oxygen)?

Water.

14

Atoms are defined by?

-Number of protons
-Ex: all Carbon atoms will have same number of protons, but the number of their neutrons and electrons may vary.

15

Enzymes are a type of protein that tend to slow down chemical reactions. True or false?

False.

16

There are a lot of chemical terms that refer to “sugars” in its various forms. Which of the following terms references a simple sugar or a more complex molecule made up of simple sugars?

Carbohydrates.

17

What structure allows glucose molecules to pass through the plasma membrane of the cell?

Carrier protein.

18

What is not a product of (or result from) cellular respiration?

Oxygen
It’s used at the very end of cellular respiration, but does not result from the process.

19

What is cellular respiration? (Online quiz definition)

Oxygen-requiring process (pathway) by which cells break down glucose, thus transferring energy to ATP-molecules that are used to power cellular functions.

20

In the first step of cellular respiration, what biological molecule is broken down to generate energy to synthesize ATP?

A simple sugar (in particular, glucose)

21

In which organelle does the cell capture energy from the breakdown of energy-rich molecules like glucose using the process of cellular respiration?

Mitochondria.

22

According to the cell theory of life, what is the smallest functioning unit of life?

Cell.

23

When a membrane is said to be selectively permeable, this means that…

What passes through the membrane (in and out) is regulated

24

When moving a substance across the plasma membrane, what processes require (uses) energy?

Active Transport.

25

The watery fluid that surrounds cells is called?

Extracellular fluid.

26

The process whereby small molecules (other than water) freely pass through a membrane by moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is called…?

Simple Diffusion.

27

Organisms in the domains bacteria and archaea have which type of cell structure?

Prokaryotic Cells.

28

What molecules can be found in the plasma membrane?

Cholesterol
Glycoproteins
Embedded Proteins
Phospholipids

29

What is associated with a eukaryotic cell but not a prokaryotic cell?

Nuclear membrane.

30

Which of the two main cell types is larger?

Eukaryotic cells.

31

As the surface area of a cell increases, the volume of the cell…?

Increases at a faster rate.

32

What is the name for the inside of the cell that includes the watery, jelly-like solution that fills the inside of a cell?

Cytoplasm.

33

What is the term used to refer to the movement of water from regions of high water concentration to low water concentration?

Osmosis.

34

What is life?

No definite answer, but there are characteristics shared by living things.

35

Characteristics of a living organism/life?

1. Composed of cells
-smallest unit of life
-all cells come from preexisting cells
2. Unique molecular composition
-nucleic acids, proteins, etc.
3. Responds to external environment
4. Maintains homeostasis
-self-controlled internal environment
5. Require energy and raw materials
6. Grows and reproduces
-new individuals have existing genetic material
7. Populations are capable of adapting and evolving

36

Levels of Biological Organization?

Atoms, molecules
=
Cell -- living
=
Tissue
=
Organ Systems
=
Organism
=
Population
=
Community
=
Ecosystem
=
Biosphere

37

Tissue?

Made of similar types of cells that work together

38

Organ Systems?

Made of different tissue types working together
-Ex: cardiovascular system (blood, liver, and lung)

39

Organism?

Individual (professor says they don’t exist as joke, like, nobody is unique)

40

Population?

All individuals of a particular type (species) of organism that may interact in a particular place

41

Community?

All different types of organisms that may interact in a particular place

42

Ecosystem?

All different types of organisms, plus the non-living (abiotic) components (things) necessary for their existence

43

Biosphere?

The portions of atmosphere, ocean, and land where life exists on Earth (aka ecosphere)

44

One way scientists categorize life is based on?

-Genetic relatedness (Linnean Taxonomy)
-Domain
-Kingdom
-Phylum
-Class
-Order
-Family
-Genus
-Species

45

Domains?

-It’s the most inclusive group
1. Bacteria (ex: cyanobacteria)
2. Archaea (ex: halophiles)
3. Eukaryota (ex: plants, animals, fungi)

46

Domain: Bacteria and Archaea

-Genetically very different groups of organisms

-Both groups share:
-microscopic single cell (unicellular) organisms
-prokaryotic cell structure (simplistic, lack nucleus, lack membrane-bound organelles)

47

Domain: Eukarya

-Unicellular and multicellular organisms

-Eukaryotic cells (many membrane bound organelles, DNA in a nucleus)

-Humans are made up of eukaryotic cells

-Can include unicellular plants or multicellular organisms

48

Which cells evolved first?

Prokaryotic cells evolved before eukaryotic cells

49

Kingdome

-Next level of taxonomic organizations

1. Animal - invertebrates and vertebrates

2. Plants - mosses, ferns, seed plants

3. Fungi - molds, yeasts, mushrooms

4. Protists - protozoans, algae, diatoms

50

Categorize the Brown Bear.

-Eukarya = Domain

-Animalia = Kingdom

-Chordata (spinal cord, vertebrates) = Phylum

-Mammalia = Class

-Carnivora = Order

-Ursidae = Family

-Ursus (means “bear”) = Genus

-Arctos (means “arctic) = Species

51

Are viruses alive? And characteristics.


No!

-Doesn’t have enough DNa
-Not a cell
-Very small
-Contain some genetic material but not enough to replicate by themselves -- must infect other organisms and then use that organism’s cells and DNA to replicate
-Bacteria cell is 1/100 of of our cells
-Viruses is 1/100 of bacteria cells

52

Categorize the Black Bear (Taxonomy).

-Eukarya = Domain

-Animalia = Kingdom

-Chordata = Phylum

-Mammalia = Class

-Carnivora = Order

-Ursidae = Family

-Ursus = Genus

-Americanos = Species

53

Marine (Polar) Bear Taxonomy?

-Eukarya
-Animalia
-Chordata
-Mammalia
-Carnivora
-Ursidae
-Ursus
-Maritimus

54

Panda Bear Taxonomy?

-Eukarya

-Animalia

-Chordata

-Mammalia

-Carnivora

-Ursidae

-Ailuropoda

-Melanoleuca

55

Human Taxonomy?

-Eukarya
-Animalia
-Chordata
-Mammalia
-Primates
-Hominidae
-Homo
-Sapiens

56

Members of the Hominidae?

-Gorilla (mountain gorilla, lowland gorilla)

-Chimpanzees

-Bonobo

-Orangutan (sumatran orangutan, Bornean orangutan)

57

What is biology?

-“Bio” = life

-“Logia” = study of

-“Study of life” (from Greek)

-Life is defined by the characteristics of life

58

Life can be organized many ways. Three examples he gave (that were scientific).

-Increasing Complexity: biological levels of organization

-Genetic Relatedness: Linnean Taxonomy

-Trophic feeding levels/patterns

59

What is science?

-A process, a logical method of understanding the natural world

-An objective method of understanding the natural world

-And a body of knowledge

60

What is a theory?

-(Will be on test) It’s a collection of principles, supported by evidence (facts) that explains some other aspect or phenomena of nature

-Collections of unifying insights (explanations) and supporting facts

-Explanation for natural phenomenon backed by facts and studies

-Basic premises have withstood objective questioning and testing

-Disputes or discrepancies about observations -- differences in interpretation

-Theories have explanatory power

-Facts support theories (ex: Cell Theory of Life)

61

Science Method

-Based on observations and measurements

-From observations, come questions

-From questions, formulate a hypothesis

-Test validity of hypothesis through further observation or experimentation

62

Hypothesis

-Plausible explanation for a natural phenomenon

-Often formally written in a way by which the explanation could be found to be incorrect (thus, science has an underpinning of skepticism)

63

Process of Science?

-The schematic is:
Observation → Hypothesis → Prediction → Experiment Further Observation → Results → Conclusion
- (If results DO support hypothesis, you can make new predictions and test them OR If results DON’T support hypothesis, reverse hypothesis, make new predictions, and test them with new experiments)

OR

Recognize a Question → Develop a Hypothesis → Test the Hypothesis → Analyze the Data; Reach Conclusions → Share New Knowledge

64

Scientific Process with Example of Oatmeal

-Observation: eating oatmeal appears to lower cholesterol levels in blood

-Other Existing Knowledge: soluble fiber in oatmeal binds to bile in intestines, preventing reabsorption by body; bile is high in cholesterol; bile, when bonded to fiber, is expelled from body, thus taking cholesterol with it; liver then removes cholesterol from blood to synthesize new bile

-Hypothesis: Eating oatmeal once a day can lower cholesterol

-Experiment was good because control group stayed same (can be true in many experiments)

65

Scientific Process with Example of Louis Pasteur’s Test

-Dealt with spontaneous generation of life

-Based on observations, people in the early 1800s believed that life regularly arose form the coming together of chemicals

-Pasteur’s Hypothesis: Cases of spontaneous generation of life could be explained by microscopic airborne organisms

-He created simple experiment using this glass things (he created) to prove life wasn’t in chemicals, but in the air

66

Scientific Method

-A statement is “scientific” if an objective method can be stated by which it can be disproven

-Testable - essence of scientific method is skepticism and testability

-Refutable - scientific findings have to be refutable

-Repeatable - scientific findings have to be repeatable

-Scientific conclusions are inferred from data

67

Other Ways of Perceiving the World?

-Not scientific: religion, magic, twitter view, economic, ethical, aesthetic, personal/family, beliefs

-Assertions are not disputable in scientific sense

-And are ultimately based on faith, belief, culture, or personal values

68

What kind of questions does science not answer?

-Metaphysical questions

-Ones that involve value judgements, such as beauty, or good and evil

69

Pseudoscience?

-Pseudo = false

-”Junk science”

-Presented as scientifically valid, but in fact, not scientific
-untestable
-lack empirical support
-based on faulty reasoning
-poor methodology

-Ex: the bands on wrist that were meant to balance; crystal therapy; astrology (horoscopes); Groundhog Day

70

Matter.

-Physical substance that takes up space and has mass (solid, liquid, gas, plasma)

-Differ by how much space they take up

71

Element.

Pure form of matter containing only one kind of atom

72

Atom.

-Smallest particle of an element

-Cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical processes

-Atomic Bomb: breaking down of atoms

-Hydrogen Bomb: putting atoms back together releases even greater energy

-At any given instant within a cell, chemical reactions occur at cellular level

-Extremely small; “mind-bendingly small”

-Nucleus contains mass (99.9% of it)

73

Subatomic Particles

-Protons: positive charge; have mass; used to determine identity

-Neutrons: no charge; has mass; number can change (which would make an isotope)

-Electrons: negative charge; mass is negligible (so small, doesn’t make difference, but it does exist); numbers can change

-Protons and neutrons make up nucleus together

74

What elements compose organisms?

-Carbon
-Hydrogen
-Nitrogen
-Oxygen
-Phosphorus
-Sulfur

-If looking at chordata animals, calcium could bump phosphorus or sulfur off

75

Percentage of CHNOPS for humans? And why so much oxygen?

Carbon is 19.37%
Hydrogen is 9.31%
Nitrogen is 5.14%
Oxygen is 62.81%
Phosphorus is 0.63%
Sulfur is 0.64%

-Because we’re made up of water

-By weight, oxygen is biggest element (Oxygen has 8 protons vs. Hydrogen has 1 proton and not big enough to carry neutron)

76

Number of elements important to life?

-100 (because Earth and everything on it is made up of 100)

-20 are found in body

77

Elements (Periodic Table Facts).

-Atomic Number = Number of protons

-Atomic Mass = Number of protons and neutrons

78

Isotopes:

-Atoms of a particular element all have same number of protons, but they can differ in number of neutrons

-Ex: Carbon can be
Carbon-12 (stable with 6 p and 6 n)
Carbon-13 (stable with 6p and 7n)
Carbon-14 (unstable (radioactive) with 6 p and 8 n)
Carbons dating helps look at age of something

79

Electrons (look at drawings!)

-Negatively electrically charged subatomic particle

-Can carry energy

-Can be transferred among atoms and molecules, thus they can transfer energy among atoms and molecules

-Energy level of an electron can vary (from very excited, high energy to unexcited, low energy)

-Orbit around nucleus in shells (which represent energy levels)

-Inner shell may hold up to 2 electrons and fills first

-Each outer shell may hold up to 8 each

-Valence electrons are electrons in outermost shell

-Hydrogen is very unstable and very reactive because has only one electron

-Helium is stable and unreactive because it has two electrons

80

Chemical Bonds

-Bonds between atoms are a form of chemical energy

-Atoms form bonds because doing so moves them to a more stable energy state

-Atoms have a propensity to attain complete shells, thus becoming more stable

81

Molecular formulas and representations for Water, Oxygen Gas, Glucose, Hydrogen Gas, and Methane? (Must be able to draw, so look at Chemistry of Life (Part 1) packet).

Water: H2O

Oxygen Gas: O2 (O::O or O=O)

Glucose: 6C6H12O6 (that’s 6 glucose molecules

Hydrogen Gas: H2 (H-H or H:H)

Methane: CH4

82

Three types of chemical bonds?

Covalent

Ionic

Hydrogen

83

Covalent Bonds?

-Sharing of electrons between atoms

-Strongest bond strength

-Ex: Oxygen atom is almost always bound to some other atom(s), often Oxygen Gas (O2) or water (H2O)

84

Molecule?

-It’s a group of atoms bonded together -- smallest fundamental unit of chemical compounds

-Atoms may be same element or different

85

Ionic Bonds?

-Transfer of electrons between atoms followed by electrostatic attraction of resulting ions

-Lose or gain electron(s) and an atom takes on an electrical charge (+ or -)

-Second strongest bond strength

-Ion = charged atom

-In neutral atoms, electrons = protons

-Oppositely charged ions attract

-Ex: Sodium Chloride (look at picture in Chemistry of Life (Part 1) packet)
-Oppositely charged sodium and chloride ions are attracted to one another, forming sodium chloride

86

Hydrogen Bonds?

-Bonds between already covalently bonded hydrogen and an electronegative atom

-Polarity: polar molecule = different areas of molecule…
-Ex: Look at Chemistry of Life (Part 1) packet

-Among water molecules

-Weakest bond

-Hydrophilic: “water loving”; compounds that readily interact with water; ex: sodium chloride (salt), sugar

-Hydrophobic: “water hating”; compounds that water forms itself around; ex: oil (because it isn’t polar, it’s all + charged)

-Ex: Sodium-Chloride dissolves in water, hence it’s hydrophilic
-Salt (NaCl) ionizes with water
-Na+ and Cl- are pulled apart by electrostatic attraction of polar water molecules (the salt compound dissolves)

87

Water

-It’s critical to life

-Life first evolved in water, then colonized land

-To do so, terrestrial organisms evolved to carry a water environment with them (inside them)

-Vertebrate animals are 70%-80% water

-Terrestrial plants are 90% water

88

Unique properties of water?

-Solvent - polarity allows water to interact with many substances; main transport medium for organism

-Cohesive - because of many H-bonds

-High Heat Capacity - lot of energy needed to force temperature change

-High Heat of Evaporation - lot of energy needed to force state change

89

Acids and Bases

-Water molecules can dissociate to produce ions

-When placed in water…
-Acids yield hydrogen ions (H+) (ex: battery acid, beer, urine)
-Bases (alkaline) accept hydrogen ions (H+) OR release hydroxide ions (OH-) (ex: oven cleaner, household ammonia, baking soda, and human blood)

90

Example of an Acid?

Hydrogen Chloride - a covalently bonded, polar molecule; when it dissociates in water, H+ released increases

91

Example of a Base?

-Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) - dissociates in water

-Hydroxide ions released react with hydrogen ions in solution to produce water

92

pH Defined

-The concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution

-Measure of acidity

-Often referred to as “acidity” of a solution

-Range: 0-14 (0= most acidic and 14= most basic)

-Based on log scale (10-fold differences) (H+ concentration (moles/liter))

93

Buffers

-Substances that keep pH from changing

-Most biological systems function within a narrow range of pH, most near neutral

-Buffers yield or accept H+

-Ex: Carbonic Acid - bicarbonate system: maintains pH of blood at 7.4 (look at Chapter 2 (Part 2) Lecture Outline)

94

Biological Molecules

-Carbohydrates

-Lipids

-Proteins

-Nucleic Acids

95

Carbon

-Backbone element of life

-Forms up to 4 covalent bonds

-Biological molecules have a carbon framework

-Has unique electron configuration (4 valence electrons)

96

Carbohydrates

-Provide fuel (energy) for human body

-Sugars or starches

-Quick energy sources

-Ex: Bread, pasta, tomatoes, carrots, etc.

97

Simple Carbohydrates

-Simple sugars

-Monosaccharides = 1 sugar (smallest unit of carbohydrate)
-ex: glucose (6-sided sugar) or fructose (5-sided sugar) = C6H12O6

-Disaccharides = 2 sugars (covalent bond)
-ex: lactose (by adding water to it using enzyme, then it’s broken down into galactose and glucose, so body can digest it, unless lactose intolerant, and then bacteria takes over instead)

98

Complex Carbohydrates

-Polysaccharides (many sugars)

-Starch

-Made of repeating units of simple sugars

-Ex: potatoes, starch, corn

99

What is the monomer of a carbohydrate?

Simple sugar

100

Why do we store complex carbohydrate fats?

Evolutionary (times of when there wasn’t enough to eat)

101

What is the monomer of proteins?

Amino Acids

102

Monomers?

They make up many macromolecules, like complex carbohydrates

-Formed through dehydration synthesis

103

Dehydration Synthesis:

Takes water out of system → ← (puts bonds together)

104

Hydrolysis:

-Adding of a water molecule disrupts the bonds between monomers across covalent bond ← → (takes bonds apart)

-breaks polymers apart

105

Lipids

-LOOK AT CHAPTER 2 (PART 2)

-Fats, oils, and waxes

-Insoluble in water (nonpolar)

-High ratio of hydrogen to oxygen

-Major uses:
-energy
-energy storage
-insulation (poor conductor of heat)
-protection
-cellular

106

Why can’t you eat a zero-fat diet?

You’ll die.

107

What are enzymes?

A type of protein.

108

Ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in fructose/glucose?

-2 to 1

-C6H12O6 (12 Hydrogen: 6 Oxygen)

109

Fatty Acids

-LOOK AT CHAPTER 2 (PART 2)

-Carboxyl functional group

-Saturated Fatty Acids: saturated with hydrogens; no double bonds between carbons

-Unsaturated Fatty Acids: has double bonds between carbons; they’re better to eat than saturated ones!

-Double bonds between carbons change physical shape of molecule, thus its behavior

110

Triglyceride

-Type of fat

-”Tri” = three fatty acids, bound to glycerol (in alcohol)

-Most common fat consumed in food

111

Phospholipid

-Type of fat

-Lipids = fat

-Phospho = phosphate

-Hydrophilic Head: WILL interact with water

-Hydrophobic Tails: Will NOT interact with water

-Phospholipid Bilayer: made up by hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails (LOOK AT CHAPTER 2 (PART 2))

112

What are proteins? Functions?

-Molecules that facilitate biological functions

-Generally larger chains

-Complex structure

-Functions:
-Enzymes - quicken chemical reactions
-Transport - move other molecules
-Contractile - muscles movement
-Structural - physical or mechanical support
-Protective - defend against invaders and cancer
-Communication - cell-to-cell signaling (they talk to each other)

113

Where do we get proteins?

-Dead animals

-Some plants (beans, peanuts, etc.)

114

Proteins are…

Polymers, which are large molecules made up of smaller units of “peptides”

115

Amino Acids

-LOOK AT CHAPTER 2 (PART 2)

-Building blocks of peptides and proteins

-20 different ones, vary in the “side chain”

-Number of types: 2
-Essential: only obtained by humans from food (problems for vegans, but they can get it from quinoa)

-Non-essential: synthesized in body

-They build peptides, which then group to form bigger proteins

116

What are polypeptides? (Don’t worry too much about this)

Smaller chains of amino acids

117

Protein Structure?

-Primary: specific sequences of amino acids

-Secondary: bending and coiling of amino acids chain

-Tertiary: three-dimensional folding that produces the shape of proteins

-Quaternary:

118

Enzymes

-Proteins that speed up chemical reactions

-Important type of protein

-Thousand times faster

-They don’t make the impossible happen, they just make the unlike occur

-Very specific

-Ex: Lactase (the enzyme that breaks down lactose) (LOOK AT CHAPTER 2 (PART 2))

119

Nucleotides

-Small molecule important for:
1. Energy transfer in cells
2. Store and transmission of genetic information (make DNA and RNA) (ATP: adenosine triphosphate = energy currency of cells)

-They’re used in genetic information:
-DNA made of nucleotides = “bases”:
-Adenine
-Guanine
-Cytosine
-Thymine
-Adenine and Thymine go together
-Guanine and Cytosine go together
-They are hydrogen bonds!
-Sequences of bases determines sequence of amino acids in proteins

120

What is DNA?

-Deoxyribonucleic acid

-Long polymers made up of sequences of nucleic acids

121

Cellular Energy Transfer

-Breaking and forming of bonds in ATP = release and storage of energy

-ATP

-ADP - adenosine diphosphate

*Watch video on it!*

122

Cells

-It’s not “life’s home”, it IS life

-Smallest unit of life

-2 Types:
-Prokaryotes
-Eukaryotes

123

Prokaryotes?

-DNA dispersed in cell

-Very small

-Always single-celled

-Few organelles

-Archaea and Bacteria

124

Eukaryotes?

-DNA in nucleus

-100x larger

-Often multicellular

-Many types of organelles

125

Animal Cells

-”Typical” animal cell:
-small
-filled with fluid
-surrounded and linked to other cells
-immersed in water fluid
-everything going in and out of a cell must pass through the cell membrane

126

Cell Size - Surface to Volume Ratio. Why don’t we see large cells?

-small in size, because of surface area to volume ratio

-Because everything that goes in and out of cell has to go through membrane, which is affected by surface to volume ratio

-Surface area doesn’t grow fast enough in comparison to volume, AND

-It wouldn’t be able to function at some point

-Think of egg example

-Ideal ratio for cells to have:
Large Surface Area: Small Volume

127

Plasma Membrane

-Selectively permeable membrane encompassing cells

-Main structural component = Phospholipid Bilayer

*Phospholipid Bilayer is similar to triglyceride (LOOK AT CELLS PART 1)

-SEE FIGURE 3.6

128

Functions of Plasma Membrane?

-Regulation... of things going in and out, “selectively permeable”

-Cell Recognition - often using glycoproteins, which differ among cell types

-Cell-Cell Communication

-Cell-Cell Adhesion - “CAMs” (glycolipids can be very important in cell-to-cell adhesion)

129

Why is cell recognition important?

-Defense against autoimmune diseases

-It should be able to identify its own cells, so it doesn’t attack them

130

Movement through the plasma membrane?

-Simple Diffusion

-Osmosis

-Facilitated Diffusion

-None require energy, but energy can be made out of them, like with electricity

-Blood is low in oxygen, so when we breathe in oxygen, it’s going from high to low concentration

131

Simple Diffusion?

Movement of a SOLUTE from high to low concentrations

132

Osmosis?

Movement of WATER from high to low concentration

133

Facilitated Diffusion?

Movement from high to low concentration using transport proteins

134

Active Transport (across membrane)

-From low to high concentration

-Requires energy: ATP used (transformed into ADP)

-Protein pumps: energy to move stuff (ex: cells contain higher Ca+ than surrounding fluids, requiring “calcium pumps”)

135

Bulk Transport

-Endocytosis

-Exocytosis

136

Endocytosis

-Movement of large molecules or large amounts of small molecules

-2 Types:
Phagocytosis: cell-eating

Pinocytosis: cell-drinking

137

Exocytosis

Movement of large molecules out of cells, using membrane-bound “vesicles”

138

Idea of selectively permeability of membrane

-Plasma membrane

-Small, uncharged molecules move through easily

-Large or charged molecules (ions) need help moving through

-Examples of small, hydrophobic molecules: O2 and CO2

139

Organelles

-LOOK AT FIGURE 3.1 IN TEXT

-”little organ”, but it’s not really a small organ

-Plasma Membrane
-Nucleus
-Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
-Golgi Complex
-Lysosome
-Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
-Mitochondria
-Cytoskeleton
*Cytosol - isn’t organelle, just a liquid!

140

Nucleus

-Contains most genetic information

-Bound by nuclear envelope (double membrane)

-Produces RNA (which leaves nucleus and becomes part of…?)

141

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

-Network of channels connected to nuclear envelope and studded with ribosomes

-Factories for protein synthesis

-Amino acid chains are put together

142

Golgi Complex

-Receives proteins, conducts further processing, sorting and packaging proteins used within the cell

143

Lysosome

-Enzyme-filled vesicles (that bud-off from golgi complex)

-Conduct intracellular digestion

144

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

-Lacks ribosomes

-Found further away from the nucleus than Rough ER

-Detoxifies alcohol and other drugs

-Products of phospholipids

145

Mitochondria

-Site of energy capture (“production”) from breakdown of energy-rich molecules (similar to chloroplasts in plants)

-Extracts energy from the breakdown of energy-rich molecules for use in cells

-Contains its own genetic information and ribosome

-Double membrane

-LOOK AT CELLS PART ONE FOR MY DRAWING

-Glucose and oxygen go in, and water and carbon dioxide and ATP go out

146

Cytoskeleton

-Microtubules (straight, hollow rods made of protein and tubulin)

-Macrofilaments (solid rods made up of protein actin)

-Intermediate Filaments (diverse group of ropelike fibers that maintain cell shape and anchor organelles in place)

-All these structures are made predominantly proteins

147

How cells get energy from food?

-Digest - (breakdown) macromolecules from food to simpler components (ex: glucose)

-Absorb - simpler molecules

-Extract Energy - Cellular Respiration

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Ultimately, the energy used by the vast majority of organisms…

-For growth, survival, and reproduction comes from the sun

-Formula (for photosynthesis): (LOOK AT CELLS PART 2)
Carbon Dioxide (6CO2) + Water (6H2O) → (light energy) → Glucose (C6H12O6) + Oxygen Gas(6O2)

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Cellular Respiration

-Process by which cells derive energy from the breakdown of energy-rich molecules, like glucose (opposite of photosynthesis)

-Formula:
Oxygen Gas (6O2) + Glucose (C6H12O6) → Respiration → Water (6H2O) + Carbon Dioxide (6CO2)

-Glucose + Oxygen → Energy (ATP) + Carbon Dioxide + Water

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Energy

-process by which cells derive energy from the breakdown of energy-rich molecules, like glucose (opposite of photosynthesis)

-Potential: stored energy (like stored in food)

-Kinetic: energy in motion

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ATP

-Adenosine triphosphate

-Consists of sugar ribose, base adenine, 3 phosphate groups attracted to molecule by phosphate bonds

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ADP

-Adenosine diphosphate

-Organic compound that’s composed of adenosine and 2 phosphate groups (with addition of another phosphate group, it’s converted to ATP for storage of energy during cell metabolism)

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“Energy was destroyed…”

If a question has this quote in it, know it’s wrong!!!

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Law of Conservation of Mass

-Matter is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions

-Know that it’s related to Law of Conservation of Energy

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Ways of categorizing life that aren’t scientific?

-Who is a mate and who isn’t

-Things that are likely to attract us vs. not

-Things that can kill you vs. things that can’t

-Things that live on land vs. in water

-Things that we want as pets vs. don’t

-Things I like vs. I don’t

-Things that we like to eat vs. things we can eat if we have to vs. things we don’t want to eat vs. things we can’t eat (because they’ll kill us)

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To make ATP from ADP, what does it take?

-Takes a P (phosphorous/phosphate group?)

-and energy

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Cellular Respiration’s four steps:

1. Glycolysis

2. Transition Reaction

3. Citric Acid Cycle (aka Krebs Cycle)

4. Electron Transport Chain

*Pay attention to where carbons are going!

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Glycolysis

-First step in cellular respiration

-”Glyco”= sugar and “lysis”= splitting

-Occurs in cytoplasm

-Does not require oxygen

-Splitting requires 2 ATP to break glucose

-But makes 4 ATP (net gain of 2 ATP)

-Results in 2 “Pyruvates” ((small sugars) CCCCCC→ CCC+CCC), and 2 NADH (they’re electron carrier molecules)

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Electron carrier

- LOOK IN CHAPTER 3 (PART 3)

-It goes by NADH (nicotine adenine…)

-Carries energy-rich electrons and takes them to the electron transport chain

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Pyruvate?

Contains potential energy and move to mitochondria for procession

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Transition Reaction

-Second step in cellular respiration

-Pyruvates moved to mitochondria and prepared for Citric Acid Cycle

-Per pyruvate, produces: NADH (potential energy) and Acetyl CoA (potential energy) and 1 CO2 product (waste)

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Citric Acid Cycle

-Third step in cellular respiration

-Occurs in mitochondria

-Completes breakdown of glucose

-Produces per turn (each Acetyl CoA):
-2 CO2 (waste)
-1 ATP
-3 NADH
-1 FADH2 (FADH = flavin adenine dinucleotide) (similar to NADH, but not as much energy)

-All carbon from original glucose…
-8 reactions each with its own specific enzyme

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Electron Transport Chain

-Fourth step in cellular respiration

-Electrons delivered by NADH and FADH2 are used in… ? … to push H+ ions up gradient

-Electrons then flow with down gradient through… … to make 32 ATP

-Low energy electrons eventually given to oxygen and water is made

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Cellular Respiration, all together produces?

36 molecules of ATP per each molecule of glucose.

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Oxygen

-Required for cellular respiration

-Without oxygen, there is nothing (no final receptor) to accept the low energy electrons and produce ATP and cells couldn’t function properly

-Electron shuttles cannot release electrons, thus blocking ETC, CAC, and TR, but energy can be “produced” without oxygen

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Fermentation

-‘anaerobic respiration’

-Breakdown of glucose without oxygen

-Glycolysis is modified

-Pyruvate (or a pyruvate derivative) accept the high energy electrons and produce lactic acid

-Net gain of 2 ATP

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Lactic Acid Fermentation

-Occurs in our muscles during strenuous exercises

-Oxygen in muscle cells runs low and can’t be replaced quickly enough (causing pain)

-Cells allow lactic acid fermentation to ensure continued production of some ATP

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What are protein pumps?

Enzymes.