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1

Four main tissue types in the human body?

-Epithelial Tissue

-Connective Tissue

-Muscle Tissue

-Nervous Tissue

2

Epithelial Tissue

-Lines surfaces of the body that are exposed to the exterior, such as the skin, mouth, throat, digestive and urinary tracts.

-This tissue can form a protective barrier, absorb nutrients, or secrete chemicals

-LOOK AT PAGE 80 (know what they look like)

3

Connective Tissue

-Located underneath epithelial tissue

-Supports, cushions, and in some cases provides elasticity

-LOOK ON PAGE 81

4

Muscle Tissue

-Located in body areas where movement is needed, such as skeletal muscles, heart muscle, and digestive organs

-FIND OUT HOW IT LOOKS

5

Nervous Tissue

-Located in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves

-Transmits sensory and motor information through the body

-FIND OUT HOW IT LOOKS

6

Describe the function of the integumentary system

-This organ system functions in:
-temperature and water regulation

-protection, sensation

-synthesis of vitamin D

7

Describe the structure of the three layers of skin

-Top layer: Epidermis

-Middle Layer: Dermis

-Lowest Layer: Subcutaneous Layer

8

Function of epidermis

-Top layer of skin

-Made of epithelial tissue

-Serves to prevent water loss and to protect your internal environment from external threats such as bacterial invasion

9

Function of Dermis

-Middle layer of skin

-Thickest layer of skin

-Composed of dense, irregular connective tissue

-This layer gives skin its flexibility and strength, and houses accessory structures: nerves, muscles, blood vessels, glands, and hair

10

Function of Subcutaneous Layer

-Lowest layer of skin

-Composed primarily of adipose connective tissue

11

Recognize the accessory structures of the integumentary system

-Nerves

-Muscles

-Blood Vessels

-Glands

-Hair

12

Eccrine Sweat Glands

-Glands part of integumentary system

-Produce watery perspiration for the purpose of thermoregulation (control of body temperature)

-Distributed unequally throughout the body

13

Fingerprints

-Formed by projections of the dermal layer of skin

-Genetically determined and therefore unique to each individual

-Remain constant over an individual’s lifetime -- it is not possible to change one’s fingerprints, although many criminals have tried

-Loops: most common (65.9%)

-Whorls: 2nd most common (27.2%)

-Arches: least common (6.9%)

14

Distinguish the parts of a long bone on a real cow bone

LOOK IN PACKET OR ONLINE

15

Identify the bones of the skull

-Frontal Bone

-Sphenoid Bone

-Ethmoid Bone

-Lacrimal Bone

-Nasal Bone

-Zygomatic Bone

-Maxillary Bone (aka Maxilla)

-Mandible

-Hyoid Bone

-Occipital Bone

-Temporal Bone

-Parietal Bone

-Vomer

-Inferior Nasal Concha

-LOOK ON PAGES 94-95

16

Identify the bones of the vertebral column

-Vertebrae

-Intervertebral Discs

-Sacrum

-Coccyx

-LOOK ON PAGE 96

17

Identify the bones of the upper limb

-Humorous

-Radius

-Ulna

-Carpals

-Metacarpals

-Phalanges

-LOOK ON PAGE 97

18

Identify the bones of the lower limb

-Femur

-Tibia

-Fibula

-Patella

-Tarsals

-Metatarsals

-Phalanges

-LOOK ON PAGE 97

19

Remodeling

-Process of bone constantly being remade

20

What does the skeletal system consist of? Functions?

-Bones

-Cartilage

-Ligaments

-Bone marrow

-Provides support and protection for other tissues while allowing body movement

-”skeleton” = withered, dried up

21

Where are blood cells formed?

Within bone marrow

22

Bones store?

Calcium

Other minerals

Fat

23

How many bones in the human body?

-Approximately 206

-Can be classified according to their gross (general) anatomical shape
-Long bones
-Short bones
-Flat bones
-Sesamoid bones
-Sutural bones
-Irregular bones

24

Long Bones?

-Greater in length than in width

25

Short Bones?

-Similar in length and width

26

Flat Bones?

-Flat and thin

27

Sesamoid Bones?

-Small bones that form within tendons (such as patella, or kneecap)

28

Sutural Bones?

-Small, flat bones formed between the joints of the skull

29

Irregular Bones?

-Irregularly shaped and do not fit into the other categories

30

Two components of adult bones?

-Compact bone:
-Bone tissue is tightly packed together, and thus very strong
-Helps compose adult long bone
-Bone tissue forming the walls of the diaphysis and coverings of spongy bone

-Spongy bone:
-Bone tissue forms a porous, honeycomb structure
-Helps compose adult long bone
-Bone tissue filling the epiphyses and lining the medullary cavity

31

Adult long bone is composed of?

-Epiphyses

-Articular cartilage

-Spongy bone

-Red marrow

-Diaphysis

-Periosteum

-Compact bone

-Medullary cavity

-Yellow marrow

-Endosteum

32

Epiphyses

-Helps compose adult long bone

-Enlarged ends of long bones

33

Articular Cartilage

-Helps compose adult long bone

-Covers the joint surfaces at the epiphyses

34

Red Marrow

-Helps compose adult long bone

-Blood cell forming tissue that fills the spaces of spongy bone

35

Diaphysis

-Helps compose adult long bone

-The midsection shaft of a long bone

36

Periosteum

-Helps compose adult long bone

-A dense connective tissue membrane covering external bone surfaces

37

Medullary Cavity

-Helps compose adult long bone

-The space within the diaphysis

38

Yellow Marrow

-Helps compose adult long bone

-Fatty material occupying the medullary cavity

39

Endosteum

-Helps compose adult long bone

-Connective tissue membrane lining the medullary cavity

40

Skeleton is divided into two distinct sections

-Axial and appendicular skeleton

41

Axial Skeleton

-Consists of 80 bones that make up the midline of the body

-Support and protect the organs of the head, neck, chest, and pelvis

-Provide attachment sites for the muscles that move the head, neck, and trunk

-Includes:
-skull
-hyoid bone
-vertebral column
-rib cage

42

Skull

-Part of axial skeleton

-Cranial and facial bones

-Cranial bones that house and protect the brain

-Facial bones that serve as attachment sites for the muscles used for chewing and facial expression

43

Hyoid Bone

-Part of axial skeleton

-Attached by ligaments and tendons in the anterior of neck

44

Vertebral Column

-Part of axial skeleton

-Vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx

-Series of bones stacked on top of each other

-Protect the spinal cord and serve as an attachment site for back muscles

45

Rib Cage

-Part of axial skeleton

-Consists of:
-thoracic vertebrae
-ribs
-sternum
-costal cartilages

46

Appendicular Skeleton

-Composed of 126 bones

-Allows wide variety of movements possible with our arms and legs

-Bones of the appendicular skeleton:
-Pectoral Girdle: clavicle and scapula
-Upper Limb (on separate card)
-Pelvic Girdle: ilium, ischium, and pubis
-Lower Limb (on separate card)

47

Why is movement of the skeleton possible?

-Joints or articulations

48

Joint

-Formed where two bones meet and articulate with each other

-Can be classified by their structure:
-Fibrous
-Cartilaginous
-Synovial

49

Fibrous Joints

-Joined by fibrous connective tissue

-Allow little to no movement (skull)

50

Cartilaginous Joints

-Joined by cartilage

-Allow small movements

51

Synovial Joints

-Have a joint cavity (space) between the articulation bones

-Allows for the wide range of motion

52

Describe the difference between a reflex and a reaction

-Reflexes are pre-programmed motor responses to stimuli that utilize nerve pathways called reflex arcs

-Reactions are conscious motor responses to stimuli

53

Describe the steps of a reflex arc

1. Sensory Receptor:
-detects the presence of a stimulus
-in this case, a receptor is stimulated by the tissue damaged caused by the nail

2. Sensory Neuron:
-carries sensory information to central nervous system

3. Integrating Center:
-found in CNS (spinal cord or brain)
-sensory information is processed
-motor command to stimulate the effector is initiated

4. Motor Neuron:
-carries motor command to effector organ

5. Effector Organ:
-carries out reflex response to the stimulus
-may be muscle, gland, or adipose tissue
-in this case, skeletal muscle contracts to withdraw fingertip from the nail

54

Name the somatic spinal, somatic cranial, and visceral cranial reflexes tested in lab

Somatic Spinal:
-patellar reflex
-plantar reflex

Somatic Cranial:
-corneal reflex
-gag reflex

Visceral Cranial:
-pupillary reflex

55

Understand the pupillary reflex

-This reflex controls the diameter of the pupil in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retina

56

What makes up reflex arc?

-Composed of a network of sensory receptors, sensory nerves, motor nerves, and effector organs

57

Somatic Reflexes

-Reflexes that involve the muscular system

58

Somatic Spinal Reflex

-If a somatic reflex is processed in the spinal cord alone (not the brain), it’s this type

-Two Types:
-Patellar
-Plantar

59

Patellar Reflex

-Important in maintaining balance

-Patellar tendon = located below kneecap

-When patellar tendon is tapped with reflex hammer, a reflexive contraction of thigh muscles occurs (knee-jerk)

60

Plantar Reflex

-Important to neurological test that can reveal damage to nerves in the spinal cord

-When sharp object is drawn across the bottom of a foot, normal response is for toes to curl; abnormal response is for toes to fan out and big toe to bend upward

-Babinski's sign (reflex)

61

Somatic Cranial Reflexes

-Somatic reflexes that are processed by the brain

-Two types:
-corneal reflex
-gag reflex

-These are often used to check for damage to cranial nerves or processing centers of the brain involved in the control of these nerves

62

Corneal Reflex

-Elicited by stimulation of the cornea with bright light, loud sound, or touching with a foreign object

-Stimulation should elicit both a direct response of the stimulated eye and a consensual response of the opposite eye

63

Gag Reflex

-Associated with the Vagus nerve

-long-branching nerve derives its name from Latin word for “wandering”

-Has numerous functions, and in the throat, this nerve is associated with swallowing, coughing, and speech

64

Visceral Cranial Reflex

-Reflexes processed in the brain that involve involuntary body mechanisms

-Ex: adjustments of heart rate, secretions of glands, and dilation or construction of the pupi

65

Describe the function of the cardiovascular system

-Function: this transport system delivers oxygen and nutrients to, and removes wastes from, all cells within the body

-Includes heart, blood vessels, and blood

-A closed system

-The only way in or out is by way of diffusion through capillary walls, therefore, any place along route can serve as a starting point to trace blood flow through pulmonary or systemic circuits

66

Understand the difference between the pulmonary and systemic circuit

-Pulmonary Circuit:
-the flow of blood between the heart and lungs

-through pulmonary circuit, heart pumps oxygen-poor blood that is carrying carbon dioxide away from cells to the lungs

-in lungs, oxygen then diffuses into blood from the air breathed in and carbon dioxide diffuses away (into air exhaled)

-from the lungs, the oxygenated blood then flows back to the heart

-Systemic Circuit:
-the flow of blood between the heart and the rest of the body

-through systemic circuit, oxygenated blood received from lungs gets pumped from heart to the rest of the body

67

What is the heart? What does it do?

-Heart is somewhat a hollow ball of cardiac muscle tissue about size of fist

-Serves as a pump to ensure nonstop flow through all body’s blood vessels


-Repeated thumps of your heart are vibrations made when it is pumping blood

-If heart stops pumping, nutrients and oxygen are no longer being moved to the cells and waste materials, such as carbon dioxide, are no longer being carried away from the cells
-This would result in the death of cells, tissues, and eventually the body

-Pumps approximately 4,000 gallons of blood through your body each day

68

Identify the structures of the heart on both a model and dissection

-Parts:
-4 internal chambers
-left atrium (receives blood)
-right atrium (receives blood)
-left ventricle (pumps blood to body)
-right ventricle (pumps blood to lungs)

-4 valves (ensure one-way flow of blood)
-right atrioventricular valve (also called tricuspid valve)
-left atrioventricular valve (also called bicuspid or mitral valve)
-pulmonary valve
-aortic valve

-4 major vessels (transport blood)
-vena cavae
-pulmonary trunk and arteries
-pulmonary veins
-aorta

-4 major structures
-left and right auricles
-papillary muscles
-chordae tendineae
-trabeculae carneae

-PAGE 116-117 to know where they go

-LOOK IN PACKET 10 to know where they go

69

Trace the flow of blood through the heart

-Begins in right atrium
-here blood is low in oxygen because it has just returned from body cells that have used up the oxygen and nutrients

→ From right atrium, blood is pushed through tricuspid valve in into the right ventricle

→ Blood is then sent through pulmonary valve, through the pulmonary trunk, and into pulmonary arteries
-This is beginning of pulmonary circuit as blood is about to enter lungs to engage is gas exchanged

→ In lungs, upon inhalation, oxygen diffuses into the blood. At same time, carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood, into lungs and subsequently exhaled

→ Oxygen-rich blood returns to heart by pulmonary veins. These veins transport blood to the left atrium. This completes pulmonary circuit

→ From left atrium, blood moves through bicuspid valve into left ventricle. Systemic circuit now begins

→ Contraction of heart pushes blood from left ventricle through aortic valve into aorta and then into large systemic arteries. Blood then enters increasingly smaller arteries as it is distributed throughout body

→ Once blood reaches capillaries, oxygen will diffuse out of capillaries into extracellular fluid and into cells. Carbon dioxide and other cellular waste will diffuse into capillaries

→ Blood low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide will move through increasingly larger veins until it reaches the vena cavae. Systemic circulation ends when vena cavae delivers blood to right atrium

-*Oxygen-rich = red Oxygen-poor = blue

-LOOK FOR PICTURE IN CHAPTER 10 PACKET

70

Understand the differences between the left and right side of the heart in terms of oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood

-Right side: (left when you look at paper) is oxygen poor (blue) = deoxygenated blood

-Left side: (right when you look at paper) is oxygen rich (red) = oxygenated bloodied

71

What type of heart did we dissect in class?

-sheep heart
-similar in size and structure to human heart
-enabled to see and feel anatomical details that artists cannot capture drawings or plastic models

72

Two major types of blood vessels?

-Arteries: carry blood away from heart

-Veins: carry blood to the heart

-Blood flows in one direction, from arteries to veins

73

Capillaries

-tiny vessels that have walls that are only one cell thick

-exchange of gasses (oxygen and carbon dioxide) and other nutrients occur through these

74

Digestion

-Process by which food is transformed into nutrients that can be absorbed into the bloodstream

-Ingested carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are broken down into their constituent parts, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids (in this order)

75

What makes up oral cavity?

-Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, pharynx

-Here, mechanical and chemical digestion begins

76

Teeth

-masticate (break down) food into smaller chunks and damage tissue structures allow access of enzymes

77

Salivary Glands

-Moisten food with saliva, which also contains an enzyme

78

Tongue

-Used to control food for mastication and to push food into pharynx prior to swallowing

79

Esophagus

-Muscular tube that carries food from pharynx to stomach

80

Stomach

-J-shaped organ lying below heart and above intestines on left side of body

-Contractions of muscular stomach wall (peristalsis) mix food with highly acidic gastric juice

-Further peristaltic actions push liquefied food into small intestine

81

Small Intestine

-tube-shaped organ emerging from right side of stomach and curving downward

-5 meters long

-Region of intense chemical activity

-Pancreas, liver, and gallbladder secrete enzymes into this intestine

-Liquefied food moves slowly by peristalsis while enzymes further break down macromolecules releasing nutrients

-villi (finger-like projections) increase surface area of small intestine, enhancing absorption

82

Liver

-large organ located mainly on right side of abdominal cavity

-functions to produce bile, which breaks down fats

83

Gallbladder

-small, greenish sac-like structure lying just below liver

-stores bile from liver and releases into small intestine

84

Pancreas

-organ about 15 cm in length, located at back of abdomen, behind stomach

-produces enzymes that are secreted into small intestine that break down starches, proteins, and fats

85

Large Intestine (Colon)

-shorter, but larger in diameter than small intestine

-receives remaining materials from small intestine
And
-hundreds of species of bacteria inhibit it, where these organisms break down undigested polysaccharides and fibers through fermentation (which result in flatulence)

-important vitamins made by bacteria are then absorbed by large intestines

-large intestine and microorganisms living within it play important role in body’s immune system

-also absorbs water from remaining indigestible matter

86

Rectum

-Receives and holds undigested material (stool) from large intestine

87

Defecation

-Elimination of waste

-Involves muscular contractions of rectum

-Circular muscles of anus control elimination of stool

88

Recognize which digestive organs participate in mechanical digestion and chemical digestion

Mechanical:
-chewing (mastication) = teeth
-contractions of smooth muscles throughout the digestive tract (including churning of stomach)

-these actions increase surface area upon which chemical digestion can act

Chemical:
-action of enzymes that catalyze breakdown of large macromolecules into absorbable nutrients

89

Understand the function of amylase

-An enzyme secreted into mouth as part of saliva

-Helps in chemically degrading starch to break it down into the disaccharide maltose

90

Distinguish when starch has been digested to a sugar from the chemical tests performed in lab

-Tested with Benedict’s reagent

-When liquid was turned yellow-green color or orange (not remained blue)

91

Peristalsis

-contraction of smooth muscle, so food is moved through digestive tract

92

Major structures of male reproductive anatomy

-Testes: produces sperm and secretes testosterone

-Epididymis: site for immature sperm to mature

-Vas deferens: transports sperm to urethra

-Seminal vesicles: produces alkaline fructose fluid to nourish sperm

-Prostate gland: produces milky fluid to semen that activates sperm

-Bulbourethral gland: adds a thick mucus fluid to semen

-Urethra: transports sperm and urine to outside of body

-Penis: copulatory organ; delivers sperm to female reproductive tract

-Glans penis: enlarged end of penis

-Prepuce: foreskin that covers glans of penis

-Scrotum: provides protection and temperature regulation for testes

-LOOK AT PAGE 14

93

Major structure of female reproductive anatomy

-More complex than male, because produces eggs and provides site for fertilization

-Ovaries: produces eggs and secrete estrogen and progesterone

-Uterine (fallopian) tubes: transport eggs to uterus; normal site of fertilization

-Uterus: site of fetal development

-Cervix: opening of uterus into vagina

-Vagina: received penis and sperm during copulation; the birth canal

-Labia majora: outer part of skin folds that cover and protect vaginal opening

-Labia minora: inner pair of skin folds that cover and protect vaginal opening

-LOOK AT PAGE 141

94

Difference between an STI and an STD

-STI: sexually transmitted infection
-has pathogenic (“disease causing”) organism present in their body, although without active sign or symptoms of disease
-transmitted through sexual activity (including organ and anal)
-many people with them, can remain asymptomatic (without symptoms) for periods of time
-however, asymptomatic person can still transmit infection

-STD: sexually transmitted infection
-results from STI when a person begins to show symptoms of the infection
-at this point, pathogenic organism has begun to cause damage to human body
-transmission occurs between individuals when they share bodily fluids, most often during sex

95

Understand the methods to help reduce the transmission of an STI

-Behavior:
-abstinence
-mutual monogamy
-reduced number of partners

-Physical Barriers:
-male and female condoms
-dental dams

-Medical Intervention:
-Vaccination (common strains of HPV)

96

Gonad

-produce gametes (sex cells)

-secrete sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone in females and testosterone in males)
-these hormones responsible for functioning of reproductive systems and secondary sex characteristics (like hair and breasts) of each gender

97

Understand the challenges involved in achieving a successful union between sperm and egg

-Acidity in vagina

-Folds in cervix

-Cells that prevent sperm from reaching egg

-Mucus in tubes

98

Understand what the individual components of the experiment represent (cup, fluid, dice, etc.)

-Dice: determine whether or not you will use a condom during sex

-Card received: your level of sexual activity and potentially number of times you have already had sex

-Balloon: condom

-Fluid: represents secretions made by your body during sexual activity

-Cup/Pipette: sexual organ