Flashcards in Test 3 - Study guide questions Deck (21):
1. Describe someone with high achievement motivation. Explain Adler’s birth order hypothesis.
• A student whose goal is to make all A’s (valid Victorian); the eldest child has the highest need to achieve according to Adler.
2. Give examples of someone with an internal locus of control and someone with an external locus of control. Give examples of someone intrinsically motivated and someone extrinsically motivated.
• ILOC – Sees their achievements or failures are results of their own actions.
• ELOC – Sees their achievements or failures as a result of outside sources.
• Intrinsic Motivation – someone who enjoys photography, writing, etc.
• Extrinsic Motivation – someone who enjoys athletics, plays/drama, etc
3. Describe Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy, sources of efficacy expectations, and learned helplessness.
• Focuses on expectations rather than feelings; efficacy expectations are what you are capable of becoming what you must accomplish; learned helplessness is what people expect of you becomes what you fail to do.
4. Give examples of someone at each level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
• Transcendence: spiritual meaning beyond self
• Self-Actualization: self-fulfillment and potential
• Aesthetic: appreciate symmetry, order, and beauty
• Cognitive: to know, understand, and explore
• Esteem: to achieve, gain approval, and recognition
• Belongingness + Love: being with others; accepted.
• Safety: feeling secure and safe, out of danger.
• Physiological: satisfy hunger, thirst, and fatigue
5. Give examples for each of the five theories of emotion.
• James Lang – feedback of the body produces emotion.
• Canon Bard – physiological and emotion feelings occur simultaneously.
• Facial Feedback – someone blushing or smiling
• Schachter Singer – emotion is the product of physiological arousal and our cognitive interpretation of that.
• Opponent Process – for every reaction comes an opposing and opposite reaction.
6. Give examples of the three personality forces (id, ego, and superego) and explain the three levels of unconsciousness (conscious, preconscious, unconscious).
• Id – the most primitive part, it exists at birth and operates on the pleasure principle.
• Ego – begins to emerge during the first year of life; protects the person so they can cope with the real world. Operates on the reality principle.
• Superego – opposes desires of ‘Id’ by enforcing moral restrictions and striving to attain perfection.
• Conscious – contact with the outside world (everyday memories and life)
• Preconscious – beneath the surface of awareness (subconscious)
• Unconscious – difficult to retrieve material (dreams and things you repress)
7. Describe Freud’s psychosexual stages of development and someone fixated in the oral stage.
• Different fixations that a baby can have as they grow. Oral stage occurs during the first year (emphasis on feeding). Problem is obesity.
8. Explain the basic ideas of the Neo-Freudians and social cognitive (learning) theory
• The Neo-Freudians went along with Freud until he began his psychosexual studies and the results came out.
• Social Cognition: observation and modelling (Albert Bandera);
• Reciprocal Determinism: the process in which cognition are influenced by the environment, behavior, and vice versa.
9. Explain the basic idea of humanistic psychology. Describe Carl Roger’s contributions.
• The positive qualities and the need for personal growth and fulfillment; contribution was “Client Centered Therapy”. Used reflective therapy, where the therapist needed genuineness and empathy.
10. Describe some projective and some objective personality tests.
• Projective: TAT – contains pictures and the person must tell a story about the picture, such as how they are feeling, the outcome, etc. Rorschach Inkblot Technique:
• Objective: MBTI, MMPI-2 – considered to be valid and reliable; helps to create an accurate portrayal of someone. Helps find a clinical disorder…
11. Describe reflexes of neonates that disappear as maturation occurs and name some of the factors that influence parental development.
• Babinski rooting, grasping, reflex…
12. Give examples of someone in each of Piaget’s four stages.
• Sensory Motor – (0-2) summary of the body moment interacting with the environment
• Pre-Operational – (2-6) learning to represent the world symbolically in a visual way. Egocentric: still focused on themselves and cannot understand that others are not revolved around their lives.
• Concrete-Operational – (7-11) the ability to predict reactions and reason logically.
• Formal Operational – (12-Adult) characterized by the ability to use abstract thinking,
13. Give examples of a parent using each of Baumrind’s parenting styles. Which style is preferred and why?
• Authoritarian – controlling, may use punishment and abuse, can cause the child to have anxiety.
• Indulgent – gives whatever the child wants, very few restrictions
• Authoritative – warm and caring, they discuss but they have the final say.
• Neglectful – doesn’t pay attention to the child.
14. Give examples of someone in each of Erikson’s stages 1-4
• Trust vs Mistrust – (birth-1) baby relaxed, handed to a stranger
• Autonomy vs Doubt – (2-3) start saying “no” and “mine”; need to try out skills at their own pace and not to be pushed.
• Initiative vs Guilt – (4-5) encourage children to feel free to try new activities and to ask questions; give chores so they will feel valued.
• Industry vs Inferiority – (6-11) need to learn basic and academic social skills
15. Give examples of someone in each of Erikson’s stages 5-8.
• Identity vs Role-Confusion – (12-18) who am i?
• Intimacy vs Isolation – (20-40) who are you?
• Generativity vs Stagnation – (40-65) a sense of inner confidence resulting in accomplishment in work, marriage, or parenthood.
• Integrity vs Despair – (65-Death) life-review process and whether it is good or bad.
16. Give examples of someone in each of Kohlberg’s stages 1-4.
• Obedience to avoid Punishment – cognitive pre-requisite: re-operations
• Satisfy needs and gain rewards – making deals with others (“you scratch my back”)
• Good boy – good girl – moral decisions based on approval and thinking of others
• Law and order – obedience relative to authority, with no exceptions
17. Give examples of someone in each of Kohlberg’s stages 4½ -6.
• Transitional Stage; relativistic, sees problems in today’s society but does not know what to do about them so DOES NOTHING.
• Concerned with meeting the needs of society – greatest good for the majority
• Obedience to one’s own conscience – willing to suffer consequences for one’s decision.
18. Describe basic characteristics of early adulthood, middle age, and older adulthood. Which group fears death the least?
• Early – physical and personal, marriage and parenthood, jobs and careers.
• Middle – physical changes that show the end of youth, job satisfaction
• Older – chronic health issues and problems
• Older fears death least. (80% of all elderly people have chronic health problems)
19. Give examples of someone in each of Kubler-Ross’s stages of dying.
• Denial – rejecting the fact that you are dying.
• Anger – resenting what has happened, who has wronged you.
• Bargaining – ask for more time, bargain with God…
• Depression – I’m going to die, sorrow towards that.
• Acceptance – realizing there isn’t anything to be done and accepting the death.
20. List the four types of child abuse. Give three physical and behavioral indicators for each.
• Physical Abuse – unexplained bruises, burns, fractures… self-destructive, withdrawn or aggressive behavioral extremes, chronic runaway.
• Physical Neglect – abandonment, hygiene, extreme loneliness… fatigue, steals food, self-destructive.
• Sexual Abuse – roll-reversal, overly concerned for siblings, withdrawn (chronic depression)… non-touching, obscene language, pornographic exposure…
• Emotional Abuse – speech disorders, substance abuse, ulcers-asthma-severe allergies… delinquent behavior, developmentally delayed, passive-aggressive behavioral extremes.