Test 3 - Study guide questions Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Test 3 - Study guide questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 3 - Study guide questions Deck (21):
1

1. Describe someone with high achievement motivation. Explain Adler’s birth order hypothesis.

• A student whose goal is to make all A’s (valid Victorian); the eldest child has the highest need to achieve according to Adler.

2

2. Give examples of someone with an internal locus of control and someone with an external locus of control. Give examples of someone intrinsically motivated and someone extrinsically motivated.

• ILOC – Sees their achievements or failures are results of their own actions.
• ELOC – Sees their achievements or failures as a result of outside sources.
• Intrinsic Motivation – someone who enjoys photography, writing, etc.
• Extrinsic Motivation – someone who enjoys athletics, plays/drama, etc

3

3. Describe Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy, sources of efficacy expectations, and learned helplessness.

• Focuses on expectations rather than feelings; efficacy expectations are what you are capable of becoming what you must accomplish; learned helplessness is what people expect of you becomes what you fail to do.

4

4. Give examples of someone at each level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

• Transcendence: spiritual meaning beyond self
• Self-Actualization: self-fulfillment and potential
• Aesthetic: appreciate symmetry, order, and beauty
• Cognitive: to know, understand, and explore
• Esteem: to achieve, gain approval, and recognition
• Belongingness + Love: being with others; accepted.
• Safety: feeling secure and safe, out of danger.
• Physiological: satisfy hunger, thirst, and fatigue

5

5. Give examples for each of the five theories of emotion.

• James Lang – feedback of the body produces emotion.
• Canon Bard – physiological and emotion feelings occur simultaneously.
• Facial Feedback – someone blushing or smiling
• Schachter Singer – emotion is the product of physiological arousal and our cognitive interpretation of that.
• Opponent Process – for every reaction comes an opposing and opposite reaction.

6

6. Give examples of the three personality forces (id, ego, and superego) and explain the three levels of unconsciousness (conscious, preconscious, unconscious).

• Id – the most primitive part, it exists at birth and operates on the pleasure principle.
• Ego – begins to emerge during the first year of life; protects the person so they can cope with the real world. Operates on the reality principle.
• Superego – opposes desires of ‘Id’ by enforcing moral restrictions and striving to attain perfection.
• Conscious – contact with the outside world (everyday memories and life)
• Preconscious – beneath the surface of awareness (subconscious)
• Unconscious – difficult to retrieve material (dreams and things you repress)

7

7. Describe Freud’s psychosexual stages of development and someone fixated in the oral stage.

• Different fixations that a baby can have as they grow. Oral stage occurs during the first year (emphasis on feeding). Problem is obesity.

8

8. Explain the basic ideas of the Neo-Freudians and social cognitive (learning) theory

• The Neo-Freudians went along with Freud until he began his psychosexual studies and the results came out.
• Social Cognition: observation and modelling (Albert Bandera);
• Reciprocal Determinism: the process in which cognition are influenced by the environment, behavior, and vice versa.

9

9. Explain the basic idea of humanistic psychology. Describe Carl Roger’s contributions.

• The positive qualities and the need for personal growth and fulfillment; contribution was “Client Centered Therapy”. Used reflective therapy, where the therapist needed genuineness and empathy.

10

10. Describe some projective and some objective personality tests.

• Projective: TAT – contains pictures and the person must tell a story about the picture, such as how they are feeling, the outcome, etc. Rorschach Inkblot Technique:
• Objective: MBTI, MMPI-2 – considered to be valid and reliable; helps to create an accurate portrayal of someone. Helps find a clinical disorder…

11

11. Describe reflexes of neonates that disappear as maturation occurs and name some of the factors that influence parental development.

• Babinski rooting, grasping, reflex…

12

12. Give examples of someone in each of Piaget’s four stages.

• Sensory Motor – (0-2) summary of the body moment interacting with the environment
• Pre-Operational – (2-6) learning to represent the world symbolically in a visual way. Egocentric: still focused on themselves and cannot understand that others are not revolved around their lives.
• Concrete-Operational – (7-11) the ability to predict reactions and reason logically.
• Formal Operational – (12-Adult) characterized by the ability to use abstract thinking,

13

13. Give examples of a parent using each of Baumrind’s parenting styles. Which style is preferred and why?

• Authoritarian – controlling, may use punishment and abuse, can cause the child to have anxiety.
• Indulgent – gives whatever the child wants, very few restrictions
• Authoritative – warm and caring, they discuss but they have the final say.
• Neglectful – doesn’t pay attention to the child.

14

14. Give examples of someone in each of Erikson’s stages 1-4

• Trust vs Mistrust – (birth-1) baby relaxed, handed to a stranger
• Autonomy vs Doubt – (2-3) start saying “no” and “mine”; need to try out skills at their own pace and not to be pushed.
• Initiative vs Guilt – (4-5) encourage children to feel free to try new activities and to ask questions; give chores so they will feel valued.
• Industry vs Inferiority – (6-11) need to learn basic and academic social skills

15

15. Give examples of someone in each of Erikson’s stages 5-8.

• Identity vs Role-Confusion – (12-18) who am i?
• Intimacy vs Isolation – (20-40) who are you?
• Generativity vs Stagnation – (40-65) a sense of inner confidence resulting in accomplishment in work, marriage, or parenthood.
• Integrity vs Despair – (65-Death) life-review process and whether it is good or bad.

16

16. Give examples of someone in each of Kohlberg’s stages 1-4.

• Obedience to avoid Punishment – cognitive pre-requisite: re-operations
• Satisfy needs and gain rewards – making deals with others (“you scratch my back”)
• Good boy – good girl – moral decisions based on approval and thinking of others
• Law and order – obedience relative to authority, with no exceptions

17

17. Give examples of someone in each of Kohlberg’s stages 4½ -6.

• Transitional Stage; relativistic, sees problems in today’s society but does not know what to do about them so DOES NOTHING.
• Concerned with meeting the needs of society – greatest good for the majority
• Obedience to one’s own conscience – willing to suffer consequences for one’s decision.

18

18. Describe basic characteristics of early adulthood, middle age, and older adulthood. Which group fears death the least?

• Early – physical and personal, marriage and parenthood, jobs and careers.
• Middle – physical changes that show the end of youth, job satisfaction
• Older – chronic health issues and problems
• Older fears death least. (80% of all elderly people have chronic health problems)

19

19. Give examples of someone in each of Kubler-Ross’s stages of dying.

• Denial – rejecting the fact that you are dying.
• Anger – resenting what has happened, who has wronged you.
• Bargaining – ask for more time, bargain with God…
• Depression – I’m going to die, sorrow towards that.
• Acceptance – realizing there isn’t anything to be done and accepting the death.

20

20. List the four types of child abuse. Give three physical and behavioral indicators for each.

• Physical Abuse – unexplained bruises, burns, fractures… self-destructive, withdrawn or aggressive behavioral extremes, chronic runaway.
• Physical Neglect – abandonment, hygiene, extreme loneliness… fatigue, steals food, self-destructive.
• Sexual Abuse – roll-reversal, overly concerned for siblings, withdrawn (chronic depression)… non-touching, obscene language, pornographic exposure…
• Emotional Abuse – speech disorders, substance abuse, ulcers-asthma-severe allergies… delinquent behavior, developmentally delayed, passive-aggressive behavioral extremes.

21

21. Name and describe (in detail) the Three R’s for Educators. Select three statically statements (from additional information) and share with class.

• About 90% of abusive parents were abused themselves.
• 90% of the time the children is abused by someone they know, love, or trust.
• Approximately 1% of children lie about being abused.
• The Three R’s: Recognize, Report, and Respond.