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_____ can be defined as the development of a new operant by the reinforcement of successive approximations of that behavior and the extinction of earlier approximations of that behavior until the new behavior occurs. AKA: helps establish a behavior an individual has never performed.



Shaping involves ____ ____ and _____ by reinforcing a response that occurs with a frequency greater than zero and at least resembles the final behavior outcome. For example, when a child is learning how to go from babbling to saying “mommy” they start with babbling or sounds and the positive reinforcement is the mothers smiles or kisses, then as the words gradually become mama and soon mommy, the ma sound is subjected to operant extinction.

positive reinforcement ; extinction


______ is useful to jump start behaviors that may not occur on their own like speech in a child. Sometimes positive reinforcement is not enough to get desired behavior and shaping allows someone to shape a previous existing behavior into a desirable one. Shaping can increase or decrease behaviors.



________ movements like serving a tennis ball or free throw shots.



_____ ____: Number of instances within time like how many dishes washed in 5 minutes or how many grapes eaten in 10 minutes.

Amount Frequency


____ _____: Continuous amount of time that behavior last like treading water or time studied before a break.

Amount Duration


_____ Time between the controlling stimulus and the behavior like time it takes you to start something or time between asking for the time and looking at your watch.



_____ Amount of energy expanded on behavior (physical response) like force of a punch in boxing or a force in swing for baseball.



What is meant by the term final target behavior in a shaping program? Give an example.

- So you want to identify what the target behavior will be once the _____ ____ _____ ____ by having a set of guidelines and a precise statement that identify the five dimensions (topography, frequency, duration, intensity, latency) so it can increase consistent reinforcement of successive approximations for behavior. An example would be working your way up to walking a mile each day at the end of your shaping.

shaping process is over


What is meant by the term starting behavior in a shaping program? Give an example.

-You have to have a starting behavior in order to get to your target, even if they are dissimilar. This means you have to have a behavior that occurs within the session time that can be given ______ in order to approximate the final behavior. An example is Frank walking around his house at first to get to the target behavior of jogging a quarter mile.



Why is it necessary to avoid under reinforcement at any shaping step?

-Because you can lose the previous approximation through ____ without the new approximation.



Why is it necessary to avoid reinforcing too many times at any shaping step?

-Because you can progress ___ ____ and with a behavior being reinforced alot, this could slow the progression of new approximations.

too slow


Give an example of the Unaware-Misapplication Pitfall in which shaping might be accidentally applied to develop an undesirable behavior.
Describe some of the shaping steps in your example.

-An example would be a child riding a bike, first they get ______ when they ride solo, so they go faster or maybe one handed which gets applause, but then the child lets go with both hands and feet which causes the child to go too far and injure themselves.



State a rule for deciding when to move the learner to a new approximation (see p. 69).

-You want to move when the learner performs the current step correctly 6 out of 10 trials, usually with 1 or 2 trials less perfect than desired an 1 or 2 trials which behavior is better than ____ ____

current step


What was the purpose of this study? (hint: Look at the last paragraph in the introduction prior to the methods section) -

To analyze how peers can influence our ___ ____, but specifically to evaluate high and low consumptions modeling on ____ ___

drinking rate


What were the behaviors targeted for change (dependent variables; DV)?

- Ounces consumed per minute


What was the subject instructed to do at the start of the session?

- The subjects were told that this was a study being done on ___ ___ ___

normal drinking patterns


What type of experimental design was used in this study?

- _____
Baseline (A): Confederate models introduced as another student in the study of normal drinking; Confederates matched the drinking rate of the participant
Intervention (B): 2 of the 3 confederates modelled a fast drinking rate by increasing their drinking rate to 1/3 more than the subjects baseline
Intervention (C): 2 of the 3 confederates modelled a slow drinking rate by decreasing their drinking rate to 1/3 less than the subjects baseline



What was the independent variable (IV)?

- The ___ ____ ____ the confederates were given

3 different instructions


What were the results of this study?

- Modelled drinking rates dramatically ____ the subjects’ rates of beer consumption



Discuss some implications of these findings.

Major Contribution:
Demonstrating the influences of ___ ___ ___- on individual drinking rate

Limited participant characteristics and the limited alcoholic drinks (beer)
The use of deception in the instructions

Does the effect change with individuals who are heavy or light drinkers?

Does the effect change with known vs. unknown peers?

Does informing the participants of the purpose to look at the effects of peer modeling drinking rate on their own drinking rate, change the observed effect?

peer drinking rate


A ____ are people, objects, events that are present in one’s immediate surroundings that impinge one’s sense receptors and affect behavior. Examples are when the boss is present you don’t slack off or when it rains you wear rain shoes.



............ is how we identify the antecedent (cue organism to perform learned behavior) or consequence.

Antecedents Behavior Consequences (ABA)


Define stimulus control.-

Stimulus Control refers to a ___ correlation between occurrence of antecedent stimulus and occurrence of subsequent response. When a stimulus occurs, response is likely to follow.



What is good stimulus control?
Describe an example that is not in this chapter.

- ____ ____ to tell you the speed limit are a good stimulus control of drivers or pressing the floor in an elevator to get you to the destination you require.

Traffic signs


Define SD and give an example. Identify both the SD and the response in the example.

-ESSDE is a cue that the response will pay off, an example would be joking with your friend about an inside joke.

The ____ is your friend

The Response is ____ and the

Reinforcer would be ____ from your friend.

ESSDE ; Joking ; laughter


Define SΔ and give an example. Identify both the SΔ and the response in the example.

-ESSDELTA is a cue that the response will ___ pay off, an example would be telling your inside joke to a customer at work.

The ESSDELTA is the customer

The Response is ____ and the Reinforcer would be ___

and No positive attention because they had to be there to get it and now it’s just awkward.

NOT ; Joking ; None


What is the difference between a stimulus and a discriminative stimulus?

-A ............ is what is within our immediate surroundings that are potential to strike up a learned behavior or consequence and is more of an open ended definition.

A .............. is more of a controlled stimuli in which there will be a positive response to what is present.

stimulus ; discriminative stimulus


Describe an example (not from this chapter) of a stimulus that is an SD for one behavior and an SΔfor a different behavior.

-Let’s say we were to ask someone to turn left at the upcoming light, the

SD would be the ........... to make a left and

the S^(triangle) would be.......

statement of the person ; turning right


What were the target behaviors of interest in this study (provide definitions) and why were they considered socially significant targets?

Parent – either ____ ____ or ignoring the child waking

Child – decrease the amount of ____ ____

paying attention ; night waking


What experimental design was used in this study? (p. 93) Briefly describe what it looks like.

Non-contingent multiple baseline design

BL 1 → telling parents to respond to their child like normal for 7 days

TX 1 → parents were instructed to discontinue the use of previous management techniques and to expect an increase in night waking

BL 2 → see BL 1

TX 2 → see TX 1

They ____ this until the child was able to sleep through the night more frequently



How were “night wakings” measured in this study? (Hint: Think about the different dimensions of behavior)

Frequency and duration


What were the overall (general) results of the study? Was the intervention successful?

Frequency of awakenings ____ for all subjects

Duration of awakenings decreased for all subjects

Good maintenance at 3 months and 1 year follow up
Improvements in sleep behavior scale for all

Decreased parental attention during EXT



What was the assumed reinforcer for children’s night wakings?

Parental attention


Describe process of stimulus control and extinction in the study.

___ ____ – parents saying “good night” to their child

_____ – parent left room and ignored night awakenings

Stimulus control ; extinction


Why would an intermittent schedule of social reinforcement harm the effect of the intervention? (p. 93)

I believe it would harm the effect of the intervention because other people are not putting the children to bed, it is the parents, so they would ____ with the experiment/treatment



2. Describe or define behavioral chain, and give an example other than those in this chapter.

-Also known as____ ___ ___ is a consistent sequence of stimuli and responses that occur closely to each other in time and in which that last response is typically followed by a reinforcer. An example would be waking up and taking your dog for a walk, in between you have units that create this behavior for your morning routine.

Stimulus Response Chain


Distinguish between a behavioral sequence that is a chain and one that is not a chain.

A ___ ___ would be like brushing your teeth or tying your shoes.

Not a chain would be a behavior that ___ ___ ___, but also has inconsistent series in between that are not close in time and that the SD is a response for each stimulus.

behavior chain ; may have steps


Describe an example of a behavioral sequence that is not a chain, and explain why it is not one.

One that is ____ __ __ would be studying for exam, taking exam, and showing up next class for grade this is not a chain because there are steps in between like memorizing, reading, writing and breaks that is not a consistent series of stimuli and responses that occur close in time.

not a chain ;


Briefly describe the total-task presentation ____ ___

This method is where the individual attempts all the steps from the beginning to the end of the chain on each trial and continues with total task trials until that person learns the chain. Prompting is provided at each step and the reinforcer follows correct completion of final step.

An example would be teaching children with disabilities to brush their teeth.

chaining method


Briefly describe the backward chaining method.

-Is a method that constructs the chain in ____ order from that in which the chain is performed.

You teach the last step first, then the second to last step to the last step, then the third to last step to the second to last step to the last step and so on so that you can get the behavior you want performed.

Helpful for children with ____

reverse ; disabilities.


Briefly describe the forward chaining method.

-Is used more often in ___ ____, this method teaches the initial first in sequence then teaches and links together the first and second steps, the first three, and so on until entire chain is acquired. Like mm-mmi-mmill-milk.

everyday situations


In a chain, a given stimulus is both an SD and a conditioned reinforcer. How can this be? Explain with an example.

-A stimulus is both an SD and ___ ____ because in backward chaining the strength of these two functions are developed systematically by the power of the positive reinforcer presented at the end that builds in conditioned reinforcer for stronger response. Forward and Total chaining functions as SD for the next response and as a conditioned reinforcer for previous response.

Conditioned reinforcer (CR)


What is meant by the term task analysis?

-The process of ____ ____ a task into smaller steps or component responses to facilitate training

breaking down


Describe a problem of a behavioral excess in which an immediate reinforcer wins out over a delayed punisher for the behavior.

____ ___ would be to lie to your parents about not having homework. ____ ___ would be being grounded.

Immediate reinforcer ; Delayed punisher


Describe a problem of behavioral excess in which an immediate reinforcer wins out over a cumulatively significant punisher for the behavior.

An extra dessert is immediately reinforced by the taste. The accumulation of _____ on numerous occasions causes problems.



Describe a problem of a behavioral excess in which an immediate reinforcer (for the problem behavior) wins out over a delayed reinforcer (for an alternative desirable behavior).

Watching a movie now and receiving a ___ __ on your exam later vs. studying 3 hours and getting a ___ ___

low grade ; higher grade


Describe a problem of a behavioral deficiency that occurs because the behavior leads to immediate small punishers that win out over cumulatively significant reinforcers for the behavior.

Immediate ___ ____ from working out - tiring and time consuming. Constant working out is what leads to an increase in cardiovascular fitness, increased muscular strength, flexibility, etc…

small punishers


Describe a problem of a behavioral deficiency that occurs because immediate small punishers for the behavior win out over immediate but highly improbable major punishers if the behavior does not occur.

____ ___ ___ ___ because it can be hot and uncomfortable.
Improbable major punisher would be injuring your head from not wearing a helmet.

Not wearing a helmet


Describe a problem of a behavioral deficiency that occurs because an immediate small punisher for the behavior wins out over a delayed major punisher if the behavior does not occur.

___ ___ to the dentist to avoid the pain and drills leads to a delayed punishment of major dental problems.

Not going


Describe the behavioral model of self-control.

An individual must ____ a controlling behavior to effect a change in a behavior to be controlled.



Describe five steps that you could take to strengthen and maintain your commitment to a program of self-control.

1. Specify the problem and set goals

2. Make a commitment to change

3. Take data and analyze causes

4. Design and implement a treatment plan

5. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Prevent relapse and make your gains last


Describe three different strategies for manipulating consequences in self-control programs in a sentence or two for each.

One strategy for manipulating consequents events is to eliminate certain reinforcers that may inadvertently strengthen a particularly undesirable behavior in a specific situation. Ex. Al’s eating at home, kitchen, times.

Consequences is recording and graphing the target behavior that shows gradual enhancement can serve as a prompt for positive thoughts about the progress.

Consequences involves arranging to receive specific reinforcers when you show improvement or even for just sticking to the program.

___ ___ ___ ___

Manage their own program.


Describe three different ways of arranging for reinforcers to be received in a self-control program in a sentence or two for each.

Make it possible for you to earn specific reinforcers on a ___ ___

Set up bonuses that you can earn for progress on a weekly basis

Vary the reinforcers from one day to the next, and one week to the next to prevent boredom with the entire system

If possible and desirable have other individuals dispense the reinforcers to you for meeting your goals

Tell others about your progress.

daily basis


A ____ _____ is a written agreement that provides a clear statement of what behaviors of what individuals will produce what reinforcers and who will deliver those reinforcers.

behavioral contract


What important stimulus–control functions does a behavioral contract serve?

The ___ ___ ___ is important to a behavioral contract that serves a strategy for scheduling the exchange of reinforcers between two or more individuals. For instance a teacher and a student.

stimulus control functions


a. Immediate reinforcers vs. delayed punishers for a behavior. _____

b. Immediate reinforcers vs. cumulatively significant punishers for a behavior .............

Lying ; many cigarettes that causes health problems in the long run.


c. immediate reinforcers for problem behavior vs. delayed reinforcers for alternative desirable behavior: ................

d. Immediate small punishers for behavior vs. cumulatively significant reinforcers non exercising, high cardiovascular time consuming

e. Immediate small punisher for a behavior vs. immediate but improbable major punisher if the behavior does not occur wearing a helmet is safety, but don’t do it because friends will laugh.

watching tv to get a low grade for not studying ......


Immediate small punisher for a behavior versus delayed major punisher if the behavior does not occur

People don’t exercise because its uncomfortable and hot. The thought of the drill is a ____, writing down lectures notes are tiresome.



What are some antecedents you can modify in self-management?

The sight of the food


What are some consequences you can modify in self-management?

You eat too full.


______ _____ -Refers to strong correlation between occurrence of antecedent stimulus and subsequent response. Strong correlation=Good (strong) stimulus control

Stimulus control


_________-A cue that a response will pay off.

Discriminative stimulus (SD; “ess-dee”)


_______ A cue that a response will not pay off or be reinforced.

SΔ (“ess-delta”)-


_____ _____ ____ Refers to the procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of an SD and extinguishing that response in the presence of an S^. The effects can be described as 1 a good stimulus control which is the strong correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and a particular response or 2..

Stimulus discrimination training


______ -A response occurs to an SD not S^, like when Johnny swore when with other kids but not when with grandparents.

Stimulus discrimination.


_______ Development of new behavior by the reinforcement of successive approximations of that behavior and the extinction of earlier approximations of that behavior. Mmm, ma, mama, mom.



____ ______ Selective reinforcement of a particular response

Differential reinforcement-


_______-Ending of reinforcement for a previously reinforced response



____ ____-Also known as Stimulus Response Chain, is a consistent sequence of stimuli and responses that occur closely to each other in time and the last response is typically followed by reinforcer. Each response produces a stimulus that serves SD for next step.

Behavioral Chain


____ ____ ____ Also known as Behavior Chain, links that hold the chain together. The chain will break, in which you have to strengthen the weak stimulus by means of effective training

Stimulus-response chain


____ ____- A neutral stimulus paired with a primary reinforcer until the neutral stimulus takes on the reinforcing properties of the primary. A clicker, after being repeatedly associated with a food treat or other reinforcer, becomes a conditioned reinforcer. A cue, which is the green light for behavior that leads to some kind of treat.

Conditioned reinforcer