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Flashcards in Test 5 Deck (47):
1

What does the term “functional assessment” refer to?

A variety of approaches that attempt to identify the ______ and consequences for problem behaviors.

antecedents

2

Define the term “functional analysis”

is the systematic manipulation of _____ events to experimentally test their role as antecedents or consequences in controlling or manipulating specific problem behaviors.

environmental

3

______ _____ to see if the self-injurious behavior was being maintained by adult attention. a variety of toys were placed in the room and the child and modifier went into the room together .the modifier ignored the child and only interacted w/the child when they engaged in the problem behavior.

attention condition

4

the _____ ______ is to see if the self injurious behavior was maintained by escape
from demands.. the modifier and the child went into the room together and the modifier prompted the child to perform some task that the child found difficult. if the child engaged in the behavior the modifier would stop making demands for 30 seconds.
alone condition was to see if the behavior was a form of sensory reinforcement when the child was alone. no toys, the child was in the room alone being observed though a windo

demand condition

5

_____ _____ was to test whether self injurious behavior occurred in the absence of the 3 conditions.toys were present and the modifier reinforced the child's appropriate play behavior

control condition

6

______ ______ -when one directly assesses the effects of potential controlling variables on the problem.

Functional Analysis

7

____ __ ______- if the client is verbal they may say why he/she engages in a particular behavior. if they are nonverbal people familiar with the client may be able to provide the necessary information. a more structured way is to administer a questionnaire that asks a standardized series of relevant questions (QABF and FAST)

Interview and Questionnaires

8

_____ _____ ______-one carefully observes and describes the antecedent and immediate consequences of the problem in its natural setting.

Observational Functional Assessments

9

What is another name for “sensory reinforcement”, and what assumption is the other name based on?

_____ ______ : because is assumed that the behavior itself is automatically reinforced without producing any consequences that another person can detect.

AUTOMATIC REINFORCEMENT

10

What is a strong indicator that a problem behavior is being maintained as a way of escaping from demands?

A strong indicator is that the individual engages in the ______ only when certain types of demands or request are made.
EX: a child engaging in self-injurious behaviors when asked to perform educational tasks.

behavior

11

In a sentence for each, outline the six major causes of operant problem behaviors described in this chapter.

Problem behaviors maintained by social positive reinforcement.

Problem behaviors maintained by social negative reinforcement.

Problem behaviors maintained by internal-self stimulatory positive reinforcement.

Problem behavior maintained by external-self sensory positive reinforcement.

Problem behavior maintained by internal sensory negative reinforcement.

Problem behavior maintained by _____ sensory negative reinforcement.

external

12

What are the two fundamental sources of reinforcement that maintain behavior? How can they be delivered?

positive and negative reinforcers
And that is delivered either by _____ or _____ ______

social ; automatic behavior.

13

List the three approaches to a functional behavioral assessment (FBA).
a. Direct Observation
b. Informant Methods
c. ______ ________

Functional Analysis

14

Explain, in general, what a DRL schedule is. Give an example of one that occurs in everyday life. A schedule in which the reinforcer is presented only if a particular response occurs at a ____ ____.

low rate

15

Define limited-responding DRL, and give an example.

Specifies a ______ allowable number of responses during a certain time interval in order for a reinforcer to occur. For example, reinforcer occurs if there are 3 or less talk-outs at the end of a 50 minute interval.

maximum

16

Define spaced-responding DRL, and give an example.

The reinforcer would be given only when the response is given after a few intervals. For example, a student that always gives the ____ ____ only gets called on after a few other students get the chance to answer.

correct answer

17

What is a punisher? Give an example that you experienced, and identify both the response and the punisher.

An immediate consequence of an operant behavior that causes that behavior to ____ in frequency.

decrease

18

State the principle of punishment.

If, in a given situation, someone does something that is immediately followed by a punisher, then that person is ____ likely to do the same thing again when she or he next encounters a similar situation.

less

19

Define unconditioned punisher, and give an example of it.

Stimuli that are punishing ____ prior learning.

without

20

______ ______- stimuli that activate pain receptors which are technically called nociceptors. They are experienced as pain when activated. Examples of stimuli that activate the receptors; hair tugging, spanking, pinches, slaps, etc…

Physical Punisher

21

______ - a strong negative verbal stimulus immediately contingent on behavior. An example would include parents saying, “No! That was bad!”

Reprimand

22

_____ - a period of time immediately following a particular behavior during which an individual loses the opportunity to earn reinforcers.

Timeout

23

_____ _____ - the removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer immediately following a behavior. In a classroom setting, for example, children are given tokens (each of which would be exchange for one minute of recess). Off-task behavior results in loss of tokens.

Response Coat

24

Define conditioned punisher, and give an example that is not in this chapter.

A stimulus that is a punisher as a result of having been paired with another _____

punisher

25

______ ______ - removing an individual briefly from a reinforcing situation immediately following a behavior. For example putting a child in a timeout room.

Exclusionary timeout

26

______ _______ - consist of introducing into the same situation, immediately following a behavior, a stimulus is associated with less reinforcement. An example would be children in a classroom wearing a ribbon that was removed for a short time when the child was disruptive. When not wearing the ribbon, the child cannot participate in activities.

Nonexclusionary timeout

27

With an _____ the response is punished. An example of this would be that children do not ask their parents for something when they are in a bad mood because the parents might yell at them.

SDp

28

What are four guidelines in regard to delivering a punisher?

The punisher should be presented _____ following the undesirable behavior.

The punisher should be presented following _____ instance of the undesirable behavior.

The delivery of the punisher should not be paired with positive reinforcement.

The person administering the punisher should remain calm when doing so.

immediately ; every

29

Cite six potential harmful side effects of the application of punishment.

Aggressive Behavior
Emotional Behavior
Escape and _____ _____
No New Behavior
Modeling of Punishment
Overuse of Punishment

Avoidance Behavior

30

______________ - a client’s right to effective treatment might in some cases dictate the use of quicker-acting punishment procedures rather than slower-acting procedures involving procedure reinforcement of alternative behavior.

Right-to-effective-treatment

31

_________ methods for eliminating unacceptable behavior are always at least as effective as punishment and that, therefore, using pain-inducing punishment is never justified.

Nonaversive

32

List six conditions that should be met for behavior modifiers to design punishment programs.

The behavior is very maladaptive, and it is in the client’s best interest to bring about rapid behavior change.

Clear steps are taken to maximize the conditions for a desirable alternative response and to minimize the causes of response to be punished before restoring to punishment.

The client or the client’s parent or guardian provides informed consent.

The intervention meets ____ ____.
Punishment is applied according to clear guidelines.

The program includes safeguards to protect the client.

ethical standards

33

______ A stimulus whose presentation immediately after a behavior causes that behavior to decrease in frequency.

Punisher-

34

_______ Presentation of a punisher or the removal of a reinforcer immediately following a behavior with the effect that the behavior decreases in frequency.

Punishment

35

____ _____ -either a punisher or a negative reinforcer.

Aversive stimuli

36

_______ ______ - A stimulus immediately following a behavior that activates pain receptors or other sense receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort. Also called physical punisher.

Pain-inducing Punisher

37

_____ _______- A stimulus that is a punisher without prior learning. Also known as primary punisher.

Unconditioned Punishers

38

_______- Negative verbal stimuli presented contingent on behavior.

Reprimand

39

______ ______ - A stimulus that is a punisher as a result of having been paired with another punisher.

Conditioned punisher

40

______ A period of time immediately following a particular behavior during which an individual loses the opportunity to earn reinforcers.

Timeout

41

_____ ____ Removal of an individual briefly from a reinforcing situation contingent on a response.

Exclusionary Timeout

42

_____ ______ - presenting a stimulus associated with less reinforcement contingent on a response.

Nonexclusionary Timeout

43

____ ____ the removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer immediately following a particular behavior. Can also refer to an increase in the effort needed to emit the response.

Response Cost-

44

__________- A stimulus in the presence of which a response will be punished. (Behavior will not continue)

SDp (S-dee for punishment)

45

_____ ______- A stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced. (Likely for behavior to continue)

S-delta for punishment

46

_____ _____ A variety of procedures for attempting to identify antecedents and consequences of problem behaviors.

Functional assessment

47

_______ ______- The systematic manipulations of environmental events to experimentally test their role as antecedents or as consequences in controlling and maintaining specific problem behaviors.

Functional analysis