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Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (159)
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1

Concerning Diseases Caused by Mycobacterium spp:

Biblical Leprosy was probably not due strictly to Mycobacterium leprae
Treatments are complicated and difficult for all human infections by Mycobacteriumspp

2

Concerning TB:

The causative agent of TB was discovered by Robert Koch
THe recent upsurge in TB cases is linked to AIDS

3

More on Tuberculosis

The TB skin test is based on type IV hypersensitivity
The tubercle of TN is a granuloma surrounding a pocket of macrophage-infected, but still viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms

4

Further discussions on TB

Immunity to TB is based on aggressive T Cell driven mechanisms
T-cell activated macrophages are the principal immunity to TB
Tubercles of TB are granulomas containing scar tissue and living TB bacteria

5

More on Leprosy

Ears, skin and other appendages are more affected by leprosy because of reduced temperature
The organism infects peripheral nerves

6

Concerning buruli ulcer:

Buruli ulcer causes painless, necrotizing lesions
These are water borne infections
Lesions are due to a necrotic exotoxin

7

Concerning "vibrios" and related organisms we discussed in class:

They are named for their particular form of locomotion

8

Concerning diarrheal diseases:

These are due principally to alterations in mucosal cell function
Antibiotic over use may lead to severe diarrheal

9

Concerning stomach and duodenal ulcers:

These conditions are more common in developing countries than in the western world

10

Leprosy is officially known as:

Hansen's disease

11

Partially purified protein derivative, AKA PPD is used for:

The Mantoux test

12

Mycobacterium ulcerans causes which disease:

Bumli Ulcer

13

The inability to respond in an effective immunologic manner to TB organisms (such as is common in Anergy in regards to TB means

That the macrophages incubate and spread the bacteria, causing more damage

14

If a person is TB skin-test positive, what is the purpose of a chest X-ray.

TO make sure it is not an active case of TB, therefore preventing it from spreading

15

Re-emergence of TB in the rise in the USA due to three primary factors:

Immigration
Homelessness
Aids/HIV

16

Regarding TB chemotherapy, what is DOT:

Derectly observed Therapy

17

Why is DOT used:

to make sure TB patients are taking their medicines in order to prevent spreading

18

Regarding the treatment of cholera what is used to reduce the infection:

Antibiotics

19

What is ORT and why is it used to treat cholera

Oral Dehydration Therapy
It is used to rehydrate the body by using different cell pumps to add water to their cells, eventually stopping the diarrhea and rehydrating the patient

20

Why is death due to cholera may be due to cardiac complications

Blood flow level may be low due to the great loss of water causing the heart complications

21

Helicobacter pylori infections are associated with two potential medical problems, most commonly ____, but the biggest concern is ______

Ulcers
Cancer (adenocarcinoma)

22

The enterobacteriaceae are classified according to a system of O, H, and K. What doe these letter designations represent?

O= LPS antigen
H= Flagellar protein antigen
K= Cell surgace antigen

23

Name the most important member of the Enterobacteriaceae:

Escherichia Coli

24

Why do members of the Enterobacteriaceae make up such a large proportion of the nosocomial infections.

Because it spreads very easily if people are not careful to wash hands, they also spread through people who are immunocompromised easily.

25

What is Dysentery, and which spp of the Enterbacterialceae is most offten associated with dysentery

Bloody diarrhea
Shigella dysenteriae

26

Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hib is associated with two M.E.'s (Medical emergencies

Meningitis-inflamation of membrane around brain
Epiglottitis-Inflammation of supraglottic tissues

27

Which serious childhood disease is caused by Bordetella pertussis

Whooping cough

28

What is O157:H7

Enterohemorrhagic strain of E. Coli

29

Which disease is O157:H7 associated with

Dysentery

30

Describe the action of Shigella toxin in the gut:

It kills the gut cells all the way to the capillaries causing bleeding