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Why do bacteria cause disease?

Because they are toxic


Bacteria cause disease by generating a bewildering array of factors that allow colonization an promote growth at the expense of host what are they?

They make toxic substances
They do it so they can colonize and grow
They only cause damage if they grow


What are the general aspects of Toxins

They Promote colonization
They gain entry into cells (looking for nutrients)
They help avoid host immune mechanism
Have families of Virulence factors


How do toxins help avoidance of host immune system

They have ways to neutralize the immune system


What are the 2 groups of Toxins

Endo Toxin
Exo Toxin


How many kinds of Endotoxins are there?

Only 1


What is the only kind of Endotoxin

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)


What is an Endotoxin

It is a toxin that is actually part of the bacteria


What is Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

It is Lipid A as the anchor with many polysaccharide (sugar) behind it


How does Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) work?

It releases when bacteria binds to macrophage.
This makes the macrophage release IL-1 and TNF. Thes cause flu like symptoms of Fever, Malaise, Myalgia, rigors, and shock


What does the Macrophage release when Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is released by the bacteria into it?

IL-1 and TNF


What does IL-1 and TNF cause when the macrophage releases it due to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) being released by the bacteria?

IL-1 and TNF cause Flue like symptoms of Fever, Malaise, Myalgia, Rigors, and Shock.


What impact does LPS then have on the medical world.

All Medical supplies must be sterilized and free of LPS or it would cause these flu like symptoms.


How do they Test for LPS?

They inject into rabbits and see if it causes a fever.


Why do Antibiotics make you feel worse at first?

When you get antibiotics it kills all the bacteria causing them to shed the LPS when they die. This starts the release of iL-1and TNF into the system causing the flu like symptoms that make you feel worse.


Where is LPS found?

Only on Gram-Negative surface components


That is an Exotoxin?

Toxins that are secreted free from the bacteria


How many kinds of exotoxins are there

100's of different kinds


What are some of the main kids of Exotoxins

Classical A/B toxins
Exotoxins as pores
Immune Avoidance


What is Bacteriemia

It is when the bacteria is growing in the system


What is toxemia

It is when no bacteria is present but their toxins are still there


Generally what are Exotoxins

Enzymes or Pores


What is the purpose of Exotoxins

They promote bacterial colonization or reproductions by providing nutrients, they do this by killing our cells so bacteria can get our nutrients


What is a Classical A/B toxin

One of the many exotoxins with 2 parts a B-domain and an A-domain


What is the B-domain of an A/B toxin

This is the binding site, it controls to what type of cells the exotoxin can bind to.


What is the A-domain of an A/B toxin

It is the active portion. Determines how the toxin effects the cell.


What is an example of how different A/B toxins can effect us

Tetanus vs. Botulinum
Tetanus paralyses you, where botulinum makes you very relaxed like a noodle


How are Tetanus and Botulinum different

Tetanus paralyses you, where botulinum makes you like noodle. They have the exact same A-domain, but their B-domain is very different
So it does the same things to the cells, but the cells it attacks are different


What is an Cytotoxins-

They are exotoxin that act like pores, and they lyse (kill) cells


What are some of the different Cytotoxins?

Hemolysins, Leukolysins, Neurotoxins, Enterotoxins, Cytolysins