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Flashcards in Test #4 Deck (94)
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1

Why is it important to cool down after testing?

Reduces risk of hypotension from venous pooling

2

Definition: Dynamic Muscular Endurance

Repetitions to failure at given % of body mass or 1RM (recommended 70%)

3

What is RH?

Relative Humidity - The moisture in the air relative to how much moisture, or water vapor can be held by the air at any given ambient temperature

4

Definition: Calorimetry

measurment of heat energy liberated or absorbed in metabolic processes

5

What percent of O2 and CO2 is in expired breath.  Are these values lower or higher than ambient air levels?

O2 - 15-16% - lower

CO2 - 4-6% - higher

6

What do you do if the client's HR is not between 50% and 70% after the first minute?

You have one chance after the 1st minute to adjust the speed accordingly.

7

Definition: Acclimitization

The adaptive changes that occur when an individual undergoes prolonged or repeated exposure to a stressful environment; these changes reduce the physiological strain produced by such an environment

8

What unit is Relative vO2 usually measured in?

mL (millilitres)

9

What does Submaximal testing allow the appraiser to do?

1. Classify fitness level of client

2. provide realistic, effective exercise prescription

3. evaluate progress of aerobic training effect

4. Inspire and motivate the client

5. Identify health or injury risk and refer to appropriate health professional

10

What number on the urination chart is bad?

7 and up.

11

PROS and CONS: Submaximal Testing

PROS

1. Less Costly

2. Less Risky

3. Less time and effort of the client

4. Functional Response to Exercise

CONS

1. Less Accurate

12

What are the limitations to Variable Resistance Machines

1. Difficult to match strength curve

2. Difficult to assess true muscular strength

13

What temperature should the room be for testing?

70-74 degrees F or 21 to 23 degrees C

14

What are the negatives of doing closer to 10 reps for estimated 1RM and doing closer to 1?

Closer to 10 you are encroaching on endurance.

Closer to 1, you are increasing risk of injury.

15

How to calculate sweat rate?

(Pre exercise weight - Post exercise weight) + Fluid Intake

16

True or False: vO2peak is usually higher than vO2max

False, vO2peak can be higher, lower or equal to vO2max

17

FW or CRM: Large weight increments

Constant Resistance Machines

18

What is the predicted 1RM equation for both men and women?

Women

(0.31 x YMCA test repetitions) + 19.2

Men

(1.55 x YMCA test reps) + 37.9

19

What percent of body weight should you drink in fluids to prevent dehydration?

>2%

20

21

What is the point of a Variable Resistance Machine?

Attempts to eliminate the sticking point

22

How do you calculate a client's Relative strength?

Divide their 1RM by their body weight

23

What is the YMCA version of muscular endurance training?

Bench Press

24

True or False: vO2peak is a valid index or vO2max

True

25

What are some criteria for knowing if your client has hit TRUE VO2max?

1. HR no longer increases with increased intensity

2. Venous lactate concentration exceeds 8 mmol/L

3. RER is greater than 1.15

4. RPE greater than 17

 

*the more of these criteria the test hits, the more accurately you can rely on the clients VO2max results

26

What are the cardiovascular demands of exercise in the heat?

1. Skin and muscles compete for blood flow

2. Vasodilation in cutaneous vessels effectively decreases venous return, decreasing SV

3. Sweating results in reduced plasma volume

4. Adequate BP must be maintained to perfuse the vital organs, including brain, kidney, and liver

27

At what point is the relationship between HR, oxygen uptake and WL linear?

50%-90% MHR

110-150bpm

28

Definition: Dynamic Muscular Testing

Strength measured as the maximum force exerted in a single contraction against a moveable resistance

29

What are the assumptions made during Submaximal Testing?

1. Steady state heart rate is achieved at each workload and hr is consistent each day

2. True max HR for given age must be the same for all clients

3. Relationship between HR, oxygen uptake and WL must be strong, positive and linear

4. Mechanical efficiency is the same for all clients

30

How much percent of total body mass does water account for?

60-75%

31

How does a spring device work? What is it for?

Force is applied, spring compressed, moves the needle to corresponding amount.  It tests isometric strength.

32

What 5 things affect the effectiveness of heat exchange?

1. The thermal gradient

2. The relative humidity

3. Air Movement

4. The degree of direct sunlight

5. The clothing worn

33

Why is muscular fitness important?

1. perform ADLs

2. maintain functional independance (aging and injury)

3. enjoy active leisure-time pursuits without undue stress or fatigue

4. lessen chance of developing

  • low back problems
  • osteoporotic fractures
  • muskuloskeletal injuries

34

True or False: You should measure resting HR and BP before maximal tests

True

35

What is the Respiratory Quotient or Repriatory Exchange Ratio?

Volume of CO2 produced divided by the volume of O2 consumed on a total body level

36

By what duration does the oxygen energy system start to kick in?

2 minutes.

37

PROS and CONS: Maximal Testing

PROS

1. Determine true max heart rate

2. Accurately assess anaerobic threshold

3. Measure vO2max

CONS

1. Client motivation

2. Personel

3. Cost - Equipment & Space

4. Time Consuming

5. Risk

38

Definition: Isometric Strength

Maximum force exerted in a single contraction against an immovable resistance

39

What is the most valid measure of functional capacity of the cardiorespiratory system?

Maximal Oxygen Uptake

40

What % incline or grade should your client be at during the workload phase of the Ebbeling Treadmill Test?

5%

41

What factors help determine whether or not you do maximal or submaximal testing?

1. Client's age and risk stratification

2. Reasons for administering the test (physical fitness or clinical testing)

3. Availability of appropriate equipment and qualified personel (CEP)

42

What % incline or grade should the client be at during the warm up phase of the Ebbeling Treadmill Test?

0%

43

FW or CRM: Degree of neuromuscular coordination not as great

Constant Resistance Machines

44

What causes cramping when exercising?

Electrolyte Imbalance

45

Pros and Cons of CRM

Pros

1. Safer than free weights; less need for spotters

2. minimizes bad technique

Cons

1. Limit ROM and reduce use of stabilizing musculature

2. Does not accomodate all body sizes

46

What are the 4 sources of error in muscular fitness testing?

1. Client: practice time, maximal effort

2. Equipment: adjusted to client

3. Technician skill: knowledge; detect client errors

4. Environmental factors: room temperature

47

FW or CRM: Increase neuromuscular coordination

Free weights

48

What is the Fick Equation?

vO2 = CO (a - v02diff)

CO represents the central capacity

a - vO2diff represents the peripheral capacity

49

What are the three mechanisms of Acclimatization

1. Cardiovascular changes decrease HR and CV strain at a given level of exercise in the heat

2. Sweating begins earlier and at a lower body temperature

3. Sweating rate for a given core temperature is higher and can be maintained longer

50

FW or CRM: Spotter required

Free Weights

51

What type of device measures isometric strength?

Isometric Dynamometer

52

Why do men generally have a higher Absolute vO2?

Because it is directly relative to body size.

53

What is the CSEP-PATH version of muscular endurance testing?

Pushups

54

FW or CRM: Mimics functional activity better

Free Weights

55

FW or CRM: Allows for full ROM

Free Weights

56

FW or CRM: No spotter required

Constant Resistance Machines

57

When is the Steady State Heart Rate recorded?

In the final 2 minutes of the workload.  Either 3 and 4.  OR 4 and 5.

58

Definition: Ebbeling Treadmill Test

Single stage protocol designed for low-risk, non-athletic adults between 20-59 years

59

True or False: Volume of air inhaled is usually about the same as volume of air exhaled.

False

60

Definition: Spirometry

indirect calorimetry method for estimating heat production in which expired air is measured and analyzed for the amount of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced

61

Difference between Calorimetry and Spirometry

Calorimetry - Direct - Measures heat

Spirometry - Indirect - Measures air

62

What are the two aspects of Maximal Oxygen Uptake?

1. Capacity of the blood of the heart and lungs to deliver oxygen to the working muscles (central)

2. Ability of the muscles to use oxygen to create energy to be used by said muscles (peripheral)

63

Which energy system is primarily involved in exercise durations of 10s or less?

ATP-PC

64

What three things is thermoregulation affected by?

1. Ambient Temperature

2. Relative Humidity

3. Wind Speed

65

What is the average skin temperature?

33.3 C

66

PROS and CONS: Step Test

PROS

1. Economical

2. Portable

CONS

1. Hard to take HR and BP

67

What is the difference between Gross vO2 and Net vO2?

Gross vO2 is all oxygen consumed, including at rest and during exercise.  This is the more commonly used term.

Net vO2 is oxygen consumed only during exercise.

68

PROS and CONS: Treadmill Test

PROS

1. Pace set for client - less room for error

2. Uses natural activity - walk or run

3. Places greatest potential for load on CV system

CONS

1. Expensive

2. Not Portable

3. Hard to measure HR and BP

69

Why would you measure musculoskeletal abilities?

1. Establish base line values before training

  • identify strengths and deficiencies
  • assist with client goal setting
  • evaluate potential for athletic pursuits

2. monitor progress during training

3. assess overall effectiveness of training program

70

What is an average core temperature for a human body?

36.1 - 37.8 C

71

FW or CRM: Not accomodating for different body and limb sizes

Constant Resistance Machines

72

When was the Ebbeling Treadmill Test designed?

1991

73

How do sub-maximal tests work?

Predict vO2 from HR-WL relationship

74

What percentage of maximum heart rate should your client be at during the warm up of the Ebbeling Treadmill Test?

50 - 70%

75

How does a greater amount of adipose tissue contribute to heat stress

1. Adipose tissue interferes with dissipation of heat; body fat acts to insulate core

2. Body fat adds to the metabolic cost of activity by adding weight to the body that must be moved.

76

PROS and CONS: Cycle Test

PROS

1. Less trauma to ankle, knee and hip joints

2. Portable

3. Moderately Priced

4. Easier to measure HR and BP - body is stationary

CONS

Leg fatigue may be a limiting factor

77

How long before a maximal test should you refrain from eating, drinking alcohol or caffeine and smoking?

3 hours

78

When would you terminate a Maximal Oxygen Uptake test?

CHEF RASPBS

1. Failure of HR to increase

2. Change in heart rhythym

3. Client's request

4. Manifestation of severe fatigue

5. Failure of equipment

6. Angina

7. Drop in SBP of >10mmHG

8. Excessive BP >250/115

9. Shortness of Breath

10. Poor perfusion

79

What is the basic starting speed range for the Ebbeling Treadmill Test?

3.4 - 4.0 mph

80

What unit is Absolute vO2 usually measured in?

L (litres)

81

What are some devices/equipment used to test dynamic strength?

1. Free weights

2. Constant Resistance Machines

3. Variable Resistance Machines

4. Isokinetic Machines

82

FW or CRM: Limb length and body size may be less of a problem

Free Weights

83

True or False: Body core temperature is more variable than skin temperature.

False, skin temperature is more variable because it is greatly affected by environmental conditions

84

Definiton: Absolute vO2

a measure of energy cost for non weight-bearing activities

85

How much can HR vary between individuals of the same age?

+ or - 12 - 15 bpm

86

What are the 2 factors of the Aerobic Exercise Response?

1. VO2 - the amount of oxygen taken up, transported and used at the cellular level

2. VCO2 - the amount of carbon dioxide generated during metabolism

87

What is the rule of thumb for hydrating during exercise?

8-12oz OR 240-350 mL every 15 minutes

88

How long is the warm up for the Ebbeling?

4 minutes

89

FW or CRM: May limit ROM and plane of movement

Constant Resistance Machines

90

What three factors affect the speed of gastric emptying?

1. Caloric content of fluid

2. Volume of fluid in the stomach

3. Temperature (15-22 C recommended)

91

vO2max VS vO2peak

vO2max - rate of oxygen uptake during maximal aerobic exercise OR largest amount of oxygen that an individual can utilize during strenuous exercise to complete exhaustion

vO2peak - highest rate of oxygen consumed during exercise

92

True or False: All three energy systems are contributing to all durations of exercise

True

93

What should the room temperature and humidity be for a maximal test?

21-23 degrees celcius or less

60% humidity or less

94

What is a disadvantage to Constant Resistance machines?

Measures dynamic strength only at weakest point in ROM