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Flashcards in Test 5 Deck (72)
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1

What is a major crossmatch?

donors cells and patient plasma

2

When is a major crossmatch performed?

patient has an unknown antibody

3

what is a antibody screen

patient plasma and known antigens

4

what is the most common thing done now for transfusions?

type and screen plus immediate spin crossmatch

5

what does the immediate spin detect?

ABO errors

6

What is the Type and screen?

ABO/RH and antibody screen

7

what is type and screen routinely used for?

patients who are not likely to actually need transfusions
during pregnancy to rule out antibodies
identify antibodies that might cause HDN
identify Rh negative mothers

8

how can the type and screen be tested to see if correct?

immediate spin of donors cells and patient plasma to rule out ABO errors

9

What type of blood do we transfuse in emergency transfusion?

Group O, Rh negative blood
must have doctors consent
if time is permitted give group and type of patient

10

what are some adverse complications of transfusion?

hemolytic reactions due to antigen-antibody complexes
immediate or delayed hemolytic reactions
febrile reactions
allergic reactions- urticaria
transfusion related acute lung injury
bacterial contamination

11

what is the most severe reaction and what does it cause?

ABO incompatibility
intravascular and extravascular destruction

12

how long does it usually take a ABO reaction to take place?

within the first 100ml of blood

13

what are some causes for giving the wrong ABO blood?

drawing the wrong patient
mixup of specimens
improper labeling of specimens
errors in paperwork
issuing the wrong unit of blood
administering blood to the wrong patient

14

what are some symptoms of intravascular reactions?

hemoglobinemia
hemoglobinuria
decreased haptoglobin levels
fever, chills, pain at infusion sites, back pain, headache
drop in blood pressure
shock
renal failure

15

what are some symptoms of extravascular reactions?

falling hemoglobin/hematocrit
fever, jaundice
bilirubinemia
bilirubinuria

16

what are some symptoms for febrile reactions?

fever and chills

17

what are febrile reactions caused by?

antibodies against leukocyte antigens
antibodies react with transfused donor white cells

18

what is a treatment of febrile reactions?

leukocyte-poor blood

19

most all donor units are now provided by blood banks is pre-filtered to remove what?

majority of leukocytes

20

what causes allergic reactions?

proteins in transfused plasma from blood unit

21

what is a symptom of allergic reaction?

urticaria (hives)

22

what do you treat a patient with a allergic reaction to proteins from a transfusion?

anti-histamine (Benadryl)

23

what is a very rare allergic reaction and what is it due to?

anaphylactic shock
IgA deficiency in patient

24

what is the usually cause of bacterial contamination of transfusions?

platelet transfusion because it is stored at room temp
but some bacteria can grow at refrigeration temps

25

what causes the reaction in bacterial contamination?

reaction to endotoxins

26

what causes circulatory overload?

rapid infusion of blood or given too much blood

27

what does circulatory overload cause?

congestive heart failure

28

what is the length of time the FDA recommends for giving blood?

two to four hour period

29

when is rapid infusion okay?

when the person is actively bleeding

30

what does TRALI stand for?

Transfusion related acute lung injury