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Flashcards in Test One Chapter One Deck (23)
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1

what did miller and urey prove experimentally and why was that important?

many organic compounds could be created by recreating early earth's atmosphere

2

what activities can lead to a mutation

change in a base pair, inversion, deletion and insertion

3

do all great discoveries follow the formal scientific method

no

4

what molecule was successfully generated when adding hydrogen cyanide to early atmosphere

adenine

5

what is LUCA and what characteristics did LUCA likely have?

last universal common ancestor and probably had simple metabolism and form of transcriptional machinery to replicate their RNA genome

6

what are the lines of evidence that support the idea that the earliest organisms may have been RNA based?

RNA enzymes could catalyze reactions needed to synthesize the molecules required for life from simpler molecules, can duplicate RNA, ribozymes are made of RNA and not protein and can catalyze themselves, virus contain genetic info, uracil is precursor to thymine, splicesome take out introns in mRNA transcript, RNA self replicates

7

what are the requirements of a living system

raw materials, energy, envelope (membrane), catalysis, biological info

8

what is the biological info that is required of a living system

how enzymes are transmitted, possible changes in genes

9

what events can result in a mutation

DNA replication, DNA damage, recombination, and transposition

10

RNA to DNA

reverse transcription

11

what is molecular biology

the study of essential cellular macromolecules, including DNA, RNA and proteins, and the biological pathways between them.

12

which pathways are regulated

transcription, translation, replication, and reverse transcription

13

RNA to protein

translation

14

why is the study of evolution linked to molecular biology or in other words how does molecular biology play a role in evolution?

plays a role with genetics, genetic mutations lead to variations within a population, small changes in population

15

what are the two tenets that must be present for natural selection to occur

variation and competition

16

DNA to more DNA

replication

17

RNA to RNA

RNA replication

18

where do living systems get their energy

sun and energy stored in chemical bonds

19

which conversions occur via viruses that further changed our understanding of how information flows between DNA, RNA and proteins

use RNA replication and reverse transcription

20

heritable changes in an organisms genomic information drives

evolution

21

what is charles darwin credited with

evolution

22

DNA to RNA

transcription

23

what is special about the envelope of a living system

selective permeable barrrier