Flashcards in Test One Chapter One Deck (23)
what did miller and urey prove experimentally and why was that important?
many organic compounds could be created by recreating early earth's atmosphere
what activities can lead to a mutation
change in a base pair, inversion, deletion and insertion
do all great discoveries follow the formal scientific method
what molecule was successfully generated when adding hydrogen cyanide to early atmosphere
what is LUCA and what characteristics did LUCA likely have?
last universal common ancestor and probably had simple metabolism and form of transcriptional machinery to replicate their RNA genome
what are the lines of evidence that support the idea that the earliest organisms may have been RNA based?
RNA enzymes could catalyze reactions needed to synthesize the molecules required for life from simpler molecules, can duplicate RNA, ribozymes are made of RNA and not protein and can catalyze themselves, virus contain genetic info, uracil is precursor to thymine, splicesome take out introns in mRNA transcript, RNA self replicates
what are the requirements of a living system
raw materials, energy, envelope (membrane), catalysis, biological info
what is the biological info that is required of a living system
how enzymes are transmitted, possible changes in genes
what events can result in a mutation
DNA replication, DNA damage, recombination, and transposition
RNA to DNA
what is molecular biology
the study of essential cellular macromolecules, including DNA, RNA and proteins, and the biological pathways between them.
which pathways are regulated
transcription, translation, replication, and reverse transcription
RNA to protein
why is the study of evolution linked to molecular biology or in other words how does molecular biology play a role in evolution?
plays a role with genetics, genetic mutations lead to variations within a population, small changes in population
what are the two tenets that must be present for natural selection to occur
variation and competition
DNA to more DNA
RNA to RNA
where do living systems get their energy
sun and energy stored in chemical bonds
which conversions occur via viruses that further changed our understanding of how information flows between DNA, RNA and proteins
use RNA replication and reverse transcription
heritable changes in an organisms genomic information drives
what is charles darwin credited with
DNA to RNA