Test One Chapter Three Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test One Chapter Three Deck (92)
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1

what is van der waals bond

depends on distance between interacting atoms, need multiple atoms in the two molecules

2

if atom loses electron it becomes

electropositive

3

ionic bonds form

salt bridges

4

if reaction is not spontaneous what is the sign of delta G

positive

5

H is usually what in the hydrogen bond

donor

6

on the scale what determines covalent

zero

7

why is ATP a good way to store and transfer energy in the cell

even though it takes energy to break ATP, hydration of the breakdown products of ATP more than makes up for the input of energy necessary to break the bond, resulting in an overall energetically favorable process

8

how does RNA differ from DNA

ribonucleotides, OH on 2 carbon, uracil

9

which has more different types of cellular functions proteins or nucleic acids

proteins

10

what is a nucleic acid built from

nitrogenous base, 5 carbon sugar (pentose), phosphate group

11

what is the equilibrium constant

Keq

12

what is a feature of enzymes

very specific to substrate and their activity is regulated

13

what is the van der waals radius

attractive and repulsive forces are equal

14

what is an ionic bond

one atom donates an electron to another atom, between metal and non metal

15

what is a nucleotide

base, pentose, phosphate

16

what does it mean that ATP is hydrolyzed

water breaks down ATP to ADP

17

which nucleotides are pyrimidines

C, T and U

18

what are some modifications of amino acids

methylation, phosphorylation (PO3-), acetylation (COCH3), glycosylation, hydroxylation (OH)

19

nucleic acids are synthesized using which enantiomer of the sugar

D form, think of D ribose

20

non polar has what type of charges

balanced

21

which nucleotides are purines

A and G

22

what is a transition state intermediate

it is the intermediate before the new molecule is formed which involves the reactants coming together and bonds are breaking and forming

23

how does the transition state intermediate relate to the free energy level of the reactants and the products

going from reactants to products occurs spontaneously and is now favorable

24

what is electronegativity

propensity of an atom within a molecule to attract electrons to itself

25

how does the enzyme affect the delta G of a reaction

delta G is not affected by the enzyme

26

what is an enantiomer

stereoisomers that are mirror images

27

what is a nucleoside

base and pentose

28

what is polar covalent

electrons shared between atoms but favor one pole of the two atoms

29

what does - delta G tell us about the reaction

not spontaneous and requires energy

30

what is an energy carrier in the cell

stored in chemical bonds, energy rich covalent bonds,