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Flashcards in Test - Part A Deck (14):

Nationalism - according to Gellner

A political principle that holds that the political and the national unit should be congruent.
(A theory of political legitimacy which requires that ethnic boundaries should not cut across political ones)


Nationalist sentiment - according to Gellner

The feeling of anger aroused by the violation of this principle, or the satisfaction aroused by its fulfilment.



Worldwide view based on natural human rights ( transcends national and local)


Levelling practices

Practices that even distribution of wealth or power


Proximate cause and ultimate cause

Immediate cause (trigger) and the underlying factors (structures)


Feedback loops - positive and negative

When two or more variables interact in such a way that change in one leads to change in another. Positive - continuing change in the same direction, increasing each variable. Negative - causes change in the opposite direction, stabilising.



The practice of regarding something (as a presumed human trait) as having having innate existence or universal validity rather than as being a social ideological, or intellectual trait.



Persisting patterns and relationships that shape choices of action.



Intent to destroy in whole or part (or) targets based on national, ethical, racial or religious group. (this definition is a model)


A nation - according to Gellner

A group of people who share the same culture, as in system of ideas and way of behaving. Or as a group of people who recognise each other as being from the same nation.


the State - according to Max Weber

An agency within society which possesses the monopoly of legitimate violence


New Wars - according to Mary Kaldor

"Involve the blurring of the distinctions between war, organised crime and large scale violations of human rights." -p2

Characteristics = identity politics (claim to power on basis of identity), modern warfare (guerrilla, weapons, strategies), globalised war economy (fighting units financed through black market and external assistance such as humanitarian aid).

"...Arise in the context of the erosion of the autonomy of the state" -p4


What's is money? And purposes according to Carl Polanyi (Paul Bohannan)

Money serves as 3 purposes
1) means of exchange
2) mode of payment
3) standard of value

General-purpose-money = any item which serves all 3 purposes.
Special-purpose-money = any item which serves only 1 or 2 purposes.


3 indefinite spheres in the multi-centric economy of the Tiv

1) locally produced foodstuffs and small livestock (market stuff)
2) cattle, slaves, magic, medicine, metal rods (not market related)
3) kinship sphere. Associated with the rights of women and children and exchanging ward for wife ect..