Week 4 - Kinship Flashcards Preview

Anthropology > Week 4 - Kinship > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 4 - Kinship Deck (14):

How did Haviland define marriage?

"Marriage is a transaction and resulting contract in which a woman and a man establish a continuing claim to the right of sexual access to one another, and which the woman involved is eligible to bear children".


How did Murdock define marriage?

Marriage "exists only when the economic and the sexual functions are united into one relationship; spouses share the proceeds of the division of labour by gender." It involves "residential cohabitation"


How did Gough define marriage?

"A relationship established between a woman and one or more other persons, which provides that a child born to he woman...is according full birth status rights common to normal member of his (or her) society."


What is the difference between exogamy and endogamy?

Exogamy is marring someone outside ones own group, where as endogamy is marring someone witching ones own group.


What is the difference between polygyny and polyandry?

Polygyny is when one many has many wives, where as polyandry is when one woman has many husbands


What is sororal polygyny and fraternal polyandry?

Sororal polygyny is when sister share a husband and fraternal polyandry is when brothers share a wife


What is the difference between monogamy and serial monogamy

Monogamy is a marriage between only two partners and serial monogamy is only have relationships consisting of two people BUT having more than one partner over a life time; EG: moving from one to the next


What is Claude Levi-Strauss' cooperation theory?

Certain operations in a society requires cooperation between different groups, you need alliances outside your family group. Marriage is a useful way to create these permanent ties and dependence.


What is the repressed desire theory?

Bronislaw Malinowski claimed that "familiarity breeds attempt" however sexual desires expressed with in the family group is disruptive and causes disorder.


What is the childhood familiarity theory?

Over familiarity creates a (sexual) disinterest.


What is the inbreeding theory?

Biological evidence of higher rates of genetically mutated groups of people who are the product of sexual relations with biological family members.


What are the purposes of polygyny in societies?

Warfare theory - excess of woman created from men dying at war. Allows women to still get married and have children.
Multiply wife's can also indicate a mans power/prestige. Or to indicate the chief, as in some societies only the chief can practise polygyny.
For the woman it also means a shared workload.


What is the purpose of Polyandry? In particular in Tibet?

Keeps land in the hands of one nuclear family with it being divided as brothers marry and wives have children. More hands to work the land. Also the more seperate family on one plot of land the more rent they have to pay as it is per family unit not per land plot.


How did Edmund Leech define marriage?

Marriage can but doesn't always accomplish the following: establish the legal father of a woman's children, and the legal mother of a mans. Gives either or both spouses a monopoly on the sexuality of the other. Gives either or both spouse rights over the others property. Establish a joint fund of property, a partnership for the benefit of the children. Establish a socially significant "relationship of affinity" between spouses and their relatives"