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Flashcards in The Axillary Region Deck (36):
0

Where does the right subclavian artery arise from?

The brachiocephalic trunk

1

Where does the left subclavian artery arise from?

The aorta

2

When does the subclavian become the axillary artery?

When it crosses the lateral edge of the first rib.

3

What arises from the axillary artery at the humeral surgical neck?

Posterior and anterior circumflex humeral arteries
Subscapular artery

4

When does the axillary become the brachial artery?

At the teres major muscle

5

Which artery supplies the posterior of the arm and stops at the elbow? Travels in the radial groove?

Profunda brachii

6

Which nerve does the brachial artery run posteriorly to?

The median nerve

7

Which digits does the radial artery supply?

The thumb and lateral index finger

8

What is Volkmann's contracture?

A result of occlusion of the brachial artery.
Resulting ischaemia causes flexors to be short and fibrotic, leading to uncontrolled flexion of the hand

9

Name of the cords of the brachial plexus?

Lateral, posterior and medial cords

10

Names of the trunks of the brachial plexus?

Superior, middle and inferior trunks

11

What are the different parts of the brachial plexus called?

Roots, trunks, divisions, cords, terminal branches

12

Roots of the musculocutaneous nerve?

C5 and C6

13

Roots of the median nerve?

C6, C7, C8, T1
(All but C5)

14

Roots of the ulnar nerve?

C8, T1, often C7

15

Roots of the axillary nerve?

C5 and C6

16

Roots of the radial nerve?

C5-T1

17

Musculocutaneous motor functions?

Muscles of anterior compartment of arm (biceps brachii, coracobrachialis and brachialis)

18

Sensory innervation of musculocutaneous?

Skin of lateral forearm

19

Motor function of median nerve?

Muscles of anterior forearm compartment
5 intrinsic muscles in thenar half of palm

20

Motor function of ulnar nerve?

Flexor carpi ulnaris
Ulnar half of flexor digitorum profundus
Hypothenar muscles
Medial two lumbricals
Adductor pollicis
Interossei of the hand

21

Sensory function of median nerve?

Lateral three and a half fingers on the palmar surface of the hand and lateral half of the palm

22

Sensory function of ulnar nerve?

Skin of medial half of the palm
Skin of medial one and a half fingers (baby and ring) (both sides)

23

Motor function of radial nerve?

Triceps brachii
Majority of extensor muscles in forearm

24

Sensory functions of radial nerve

Most of the skin on the posterior forearm
Dorsal surface of the lateral side of the palm
Lateral three and a half digits

25

Sensory function of the axillary nerve?

Regimental badge area

26

Motor functions of the axillary nerve?

Teres minor and deltoid muscle - both abductors of the arm at the shoulder

27

What is the apex of the axilla formed by?

Lateral border of the first rib
Superior border of the scapula
Posterior border of the clavicle

28

What is the lateral wall of the axilla formed by?

Intertubercular groove of the humerus
Tendon of long head of biceps brachii

29

What is the medial wall formed by?

Serratus anterior and the thoracic wall

30

Anterior wall?

Pec major and minor
Subclavius muscles

31

Posterior wall?

Subscapularis
Teres major
Latissiumus dorsi

32

Give the contents of the axilla

Axillary artery and vein
Biceps brachii and coracobrachialis
Axillary lymph nodes

33

What is the pathology of thoracic outlet syndrome?

The vessels and nerves may become compressed at the apex of the axilla - there is a narrow gap between the clavicle, first rib and scapula.

34

What are causes of thoracic outlet syndrome?

Trauma eg fractured clavicle
Repetitive actions

35

What does thoracic outlet syndrome present with?

Pain
Parasthesia
Muscle weakness
Discolouration