Flashcards in The Knee Joint Deck (37):
What type of joint is the knee joint?
Synovial hinge joint
What are the articulating bones at the knee joint?
2x femorotibial articulations - between lateral and medial femoral condyles and tibia
1x intermediate femoropatellar articulation - between the patella and anterior and distal femur
What is the most important muscle in stabilising the knee?
The quadriceps femoris
Which bones are involves in the knee joint?
Tibia, femur and patella
What is found between the femur condyles?
Anteriorly - shallow depression for patella articulation
Posteriorly - intercondylar fossa which is a deep notch
Where do the collateral ligaments attach?
Where is the adductor tubule of the femur found?
On the medial condyle
What is the point of menisci?
Deepen the articular surface of the tibia, increasing stability of the joint
Also act as shock absorbers
What attaches the menisci to the joint capsule?
The coronary ligaments
Course of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments?
Posterior passes anteriorly and inserts medially
Anterior passes posteriorly and inserts laterally
Which is the weakest cruciate ligament?
What do the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments limit?
Anterior - posterior movement of femur on tibia and hyperextension
Posterior - anterior movement of femur on tibia and hyperflexion
Name the extracapsular ligaments
Fibular collateral ligament
Tibial collateral ligament
Oblique popliteal ligament
Arcuate popliteal ligament
Movements of the knee joint?
Small degree of medial and lateral rotation
What does the knee joint rely on to stabilise it?
Ligaments and muscles
What is the weight bearing joint of the knee?
What do the menisci attach to?
Intercondylar area of the tibia
What extra attachment does the medial meniscus have?
Tibial collateral ligament and the joint capsule
Name the bursae of the knee joint?
Where is the suprapatella bursa located?
Between the quadriceps femoris and the femur
Where is the prepatella bursa found?
Between the apex of the patella and the skin
Location of the infrapatella bursa?
Split into deep and superficial.
Deep - between tibia and patella ligament
Superficial - between patella ligament and skin
Location of semimembranosus bursa?
Posteriorly in the knee joint. Between the semimembranosus muscle and the medial head of the gastrocnemius.
Where does the patellar ligament attach to?
The tibial tuberosity
Function of the collateral ligaments?
Prevent medial or lateral movement
Where do the tibial and fibular collateral ligaments attach?
Tibial - Medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial surface of the tibia
Fibular - lateral epicondyle of the femur to depression in the lateral surface of the fibular head
Which muscles cause extension of the knee joint?
Which muscles produce flexion of the knee joint?
Hamstrings, gracilis, sartorius and popliteus
Which muscles produce lateral rotation of the knee joint?
Which muscles produce medial rotation of the knee joint?
Semimembranosus, semitendinosus, gracilis, sartorius and popliteus
How are the collateral ligaments injured?
Force applied to side of the knee when the foot is placed on the ground
How can damage to collateral ligaments be assessed?
Pain on medial rotation of the leg - damage to medial ligament
Lateral rotation - damage to lateral ligament
What can be torn in hyperextension of the knee joint?
Anterior cruciate ligament
How can you test for damage to the ACL?
Anterior draw test
What is the unhappy triad?
Indicates damage to the ACL
-Unstable femur shifts medially, tearing lateral meniscus and tibial collateral ligament
Medial meniscus can also be torn due to its attachment to the tibial collateral ligament
How do you test for posterior cruciate ligament damage?
Posterior draw test.