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Flashcards in The Knee Joint Deck (37):
0

What type of joint is the knee joint?

Synovial hinge joint

1

What are the articulating bones at the knee joint?

2x femorotibial articulations - between lateral and medial femoral condyles and tibia
1x intermediate femoropatellar articulation - between the patella and anterior and distal femur

2

What is the most important muscle in stabilising the knee?

The quadriceps femoris

3

Which bones are involves in the knee joint?

Tibia, femur and patella

4

What is found between the femur condyles?

Anteriorly - shallow depression for patella articulation
Posteriorly - intercondylar fossa which is a deep notch

5

Where do the collateral ligaments attach?

Femoral epicondyles

6

Where is the adductor tubule of the femur found?

On the medial condyle

7

What is the point of menisci?

Deepen the articular surface of the tibia, increasing stability of the joint
Also act as shock absorbers

8

What attaches the menisci to the joint capsule?

The coronary ligaments

9

Course of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments?

PAMs APpLes
Posterior passes anteriorly and inserts medially
Anterior passes posteriorly and inserts laterally

10

Which is the weakest cruciate ligament?

Anterior CL

11

What do the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments limit?

Anterior - posterior movement of femur on tibia and hyperextension
Posterior - anterior movement of femur on tibia and hyperflexion

12

Name the extracapsular ligaments

Patellar ligament
Fibular collateral ligament
Tibial collateral ligament
Oblique popliteal ligament
Arcuate popliteal ligament

13

Movements of the knee joint?

Extension, flexion
Small degree of medial and lateral rotation

14

What does the knee joint rely on to stabilise it?

Ligaments and muscles

15

What is the weight bearing joint of the knee?

The tibiofemoral

16

What do the menisci attach to?

Intercondylar area of the tibia

17

What extra attachment does the medial meniscus have?

Tibial collateral ligament and the joint capsule

18

Name the bursae of the knee joint?

Suprapatella bursa
Prepatella bursa
Infrapatella bursa
Semimembranosus bursa

19

Where is the suprapatella bursa located?

Between the quadriceps femoris and the femur

20

Where is the prepatella bursa found?

Between the apex of the patella and the skin

21

Location of the infrapatella bursa?

Split into deep and superficial.
Deep - between tibia and patella ligament
Superficial - between patella ligament and skin

22

Location of semimembranosus bursa?

Posteriorly in the knee joint. Between the semimembranosus muscle and the medial head of the gastrocnemius.

23

Where does the patellar ligament attach to?

The tibial tuberosity

24

Function of the collateral ligaments?

Prevent medial or lateral movement

25

Where do the tibial and fibular collateral ligaments attach?

Tibial - Medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial surface of the tibia
Fibular - lateral epicondyle of the femur to depression in the lateral surface of the fibular head

26

Which muscles cause extension of the knee joint?

Quadriceps femoris

27

Which muscles produce flexion of the knee joint?

Hamstrings, gracilis, sartorius and popliteus

28

Which muscles produce lateral rotation of the knee joint?

Biceps femoris

29

Which muscles produce medial rotation of the knee joint?

Semimembranosus, semitendinosus, gracilis, sartorius and popliteus

30

How are the collateral ligaments injured?

Force applied to side of the knee when the foot is placed on the ground

31

How can damage to collateral ligaments be assessed?

Pain on medial rotation of the leg - damage to medial ligament
Lateral rotation - damage to lateral ligament

32

What can be torn in hyperextension of the knee joint?

Anterior cruciate ligament

33

How can you test for damage to the ACL?

Anterior draw test

34

What is the unhappy triad?

Indicates damage to the ACL
-Unstable femur shifts medially, tearing lateral meniscus and tibial collateral ligament
Medial meniscus can also be torn due to its attachment to the tibial collateral ligament

35

How do you test for posterior cruciate ligament damage?

Posterior draw test.

36

In which direction does the patella normally dislocate?

Laterally