Flashcards in The Elbow Deck (60):
What 3 joints make up the articular capsule?
What is the carrying angle of the elbow?
Allows forearm to clear the hips and is important for carrying objects
women have slightly larger than men as hips as there
What condyles make up the elbow? What are other names for them?
Capitulum - little head
Trochlea - pulley
What are the epicondyles of the elbow?
Lateral to the condyles - medial and lateral
What epicondyle do muscles attach to?
Medial epicondyle as it is larger
What is the olecranon process?
The posterior hook shaped process on the elbow
What are the 2 collateral ligaments and what are their shape?
What are the 3 ligaments at the elbow?
Where is the anular ligament?
encircles the head of the radius and keeps the radius in the radial notch of the ulnar
What joint does the anular ligament form?
proximal radio-ulnar joint for pronation and suppination
What is a sublaxation?
Why is a sublaxation of the promixal radioulnar joint common in infants
Anular ligament attaches loosely to ulna
What muscles are used for flexion of the arm?
Which muscles are used for flexion of the arm?
Which muscles are used for pronation?
Which muscles are used for supination?
How many compartments does the upper arm have?
2 - anterior and posterior
What is in the posterior compartment of the upper arm?
Shoulder and elbow extensors
What is in the anterior compartment of the upper arm?
Shoulder and elbow flexors
What muscles make up the anterior compartment of the upper arm?
Which nerve innervates the anterior compartment of the upper arm? What are its spinal roots?
C5, C6, C7
What does the biceps reflex test for?
C5 and C6 reflex arcs
What is the role of the coracobrachialis?
Flexes and adducts shoulder
Where is the brachialis?
Coronoid process of ulna
What is the role of the brachialis?
Flexes in all positions - even in pronation and suppination
What is the function of the biceps brachii?
Flexor at shoulder and elbow
Do biceps act in flexion of elbow and why?
brachi attaches to radius so is affected by pronation and supination, tendon of biceps gets wrapped around radius
What does the short head of the biceps brachii attach to?
What does the long head of the biceps brachii attach to?
Supraglenoid tubercle just above scapula, is lateral to short
When you do swan and flex upper arms which mucles are used and why?
pronation - just brachialis
if just flex hand inwards - supination brachialis and biceps brachii
biceps brachii is affected by flexion as contacts radius but brachialis is just connecting to ulna so can flex in all directions
What muscles are in the posterior compartment of the upper arm?
WHat nerve is in the posterior compartment of the bdoy and what are its roots?
Radial Nerve (C5-T1)
What does the triceps reflex test for?
C7 and C8 reflex arcs
Where is the aconeus?
Lateral epicondyle of humerus to olecranon
What is the role of the aconeus?
helps triceps in elbow extension
What is the function of the triceps brachii?
What are the heads of the triceps brachii?
Long head (infraglenoid tubercle of scapula)
Which head crosses the shoulder joint?
Long head of the triceps brachii
Where does the radial nerve run?
Between medial and lateral head of the triceps brachii
Right on the back of the humerus
What can cause a radial nerve damage?
Fracture to humerus shaft
What is the pathway of the radial nerve? Which compartment is it in?
The Radial nerve runs in the posterior compartment of the arm, but pierces the intermuscular septum to run anterior to the lateral epicondyle at the elbow
What is the pathway of the ulnar nerve? Which compartment is it in?
The Ulnar nerve runs in the anterior compartment of the arm, and pierces the intermuscular septa to pass posterior to the medial epicondyle to enter the forearm
What is the funny bone and why do you get a sensation?
Medial epicondyle is funny bone and you are compressing your ulna nerve
What is the pathway of the musculocutaneous nerve? Which compartment is it in?
The Musculocutaneous nerve supplies the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm, and the emerges lateral to the biceps as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm
What is the pathway of the median nerve? Which compartment is it in?
The Median nerve runs in the anterior compartment of the arm, and crosses the anterior aspect of the elbow to enter the anterior compartment of the forearm
Where does the pronator teres run?
from medial condyle to radius
Where does the pronator quadratus run?
anteriorly between radius and ulna
What occurs during pronation?
Pronator teres and pronator quadratus contract so get shorter pulling radius over ulna.
What bursa do you have at the elbow joint?
Deep (subtendinous) olecranon bursa
Intratendinous olecranon bursa
Superficial (subcutaneous) olecranon bursa
Where is the Deep (subtendinous) olecranon bursa
Between olecranon and triceps tendon
Where is the intratendinous olecranon bursa
Sometimes present in triceps tendon
Where is the Superficial (subcutaneous) olecranon bursa
Located in subcutaneous connective tissue
What is bursistis?
Affects Superficial (subcutaneous) olecranon bursa
What is the cubital fossa?
Anterior depression in front of elbow joint – superficial veins of the arms are here -
What is another name for the cubital fossa?
Where are the medial cubital veins?
Superficially in the subcutaneous tissue overlying the cubital fossa are the median cubital veins, related to the basilic and cephalic veins.
What is the tendon in the elbow?
What are the arteries of the arm?
Where does the brachial artery branch and into what?
Right after cubital fossa into ulna and radial arteries