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Flashcards in overview of upper limb Deck (28):

what allows the upper limb to move

shoulder, large range of movement, wide area


what do the muscles of the shoulder do for the upper limb

allow it to move and can anchor it to trunk


where do the muscles that move the fingers originate?

intrinsic muscles in the hand for fine fine movement
extrinsic in forearm for power


What are the two main types of grip

power grips and precision grips


which grips are most primitive?

power grips and present in new born babies


What do hypothenar muscles do in power grips

stabilise medial side of palm against handle


What do wrist extensors do in power grips

provide a stable base


What types of grips are examples of power grips

cylindrical, spherical, hook, lateral prehension


What muscles are used in precision grips

intrinsic muscles cooperate with long flexor and extensor muscles (extrinsic) to give a more complex movement holding objecting between tip of thumb and finger(s)


When will precision grip develop?

9 months of age


what types of grips are precision?

plate pinch key or pincer


what are the subgroups of power grips and what is the difference between them

prehensile where thumb is involved or non prehensile where thumb isn't involved


what is an example of a non prehensile grip



What will cause damage to the radial nerve

fracture to mid shaft of humerus


What groove does the radial groove run in

spiral groove, or radial groove


what is the main symptom of radial nerve injury and why

wrist drop as no extension of wrist and digits as no action of FDS and FDP


what is Saturday night palsy caused by

radial nerve in armpit or upper arm compressed or stretched due to falling asleep with arm hanging


what happens after radial nerve injury

nerves will regrow and repair


what is the only area which is purely radial nerve

thumb and first finger web of skin so if damaged get loss of sensory feeling here


What is the cause of radial nerve palsy in newborns and symptoms

prolonged pressure of inferior arm through labour stretching nerve in armpit
wrist drop
unable to extend thumb and MCP of all digits
weak elbow extension


Where is the median nerve at risk of damage

as it comes into cubital fossa - supra condular humerus fracture, oeverything below loses innervation


what happens when you ask a high median nerve injury patient to make a fist

hand of benediction
index and middle won't flex and thumb doesn't move
4th and 5th DIP can flex as ulnar nerve inner area medial FDP and FCU


what is low median nerve injury example

carpal tunnel syndrome
reduces size of carpal tunnel can compress median nerve
progressive loss of coordination and strength in thumb


if you ask a low median nerve injury patient to close their fist what happens

they can weakly close fingers and thumb as FPL works but thenar muscles to thumb are not working as not innervated


Where is the most likely place where the ulnar nerve will be injured?

medial epicondyle if humerus


What does ulnar nerve lead to? symptoms?



Why is there an ulnar paradox

in high nerve injury, clawing of the hand looks more subtle whereas high nerve injury indicates worse muscle damage


What is the difference between high and low ulnar nerve palsy?

high - all muscles lost and get cubital tunnel syndrome
low - FDP pulls digits 4 and 5 into flexion, Guyon's canal syndrome