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Flashcards in The Middle Ages Deck (51)
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What is the period after the Norman Conquest up until about 1485 called? What is it characterised by?

The Middle Ages or the medieval period. It was a time of almost constant war.


Why did the English fight with the Welsh, Scottish and Irish noblemen during the Middle Ages? Were they able to establish rule in any of these countries?

For control of their lands. Hey managed to establish rule in Wales.


When was Wales annexed to the Crown of England? What statute was issued to declare the annexation and by whom?

Wales was annexed in 1284, by King Edward I who introduced the Statute of Rhuddlan.


Name two castles that were built in Wales to maintain the power of King Edward I.

Conwy and Caernarvon


When were the last Welsh rebellions defeated and English laws and language introduced in Wales?

By the middle of the 15th century


English kings were less successful in Scotland. In 1314 the Scottish defeated the English in a battle. Name this battle and the king who led the Scottish.

The Battle of Bannockburn, where the Scottish were led by Robert the Bruce.


Was Ireland an independent country at the beginning of the Middle Ages?



Why did the English first go to Ireland?

They first went as troops to help the Irish king and remained to build their own settlements.


By 1200 the English ruled an area of Ireland around Dublin. Name this area.

The Pale


Name two wars that English kings fought abroad during the Middle Ages.

The Crusades and The Hundred Years War


What were European Christians fighting for in the Crusades?

Control of the Holy Land


Who did English kings fight in the Hundred Years War? How long did the war last?

They fought with France for 116 years.


Name one of the most famous battles of the Hundred Years War that took place in 1415 in which the English were vastly outnumbered but defeated the French. Which king led the English to victory?

The Battle of Agincourt, where the English were led by King Henry V.


When did the English leave France?

In the 1450s


Name and explain the system of land ownership the Normans used.

The Normans used a system called feudalism, whereby the king gave land to his lords in return for help in war. Landowners had to send certain numbers of men to serve in the army. Some peasants had their owns lands but most were serfs. They had an area of their lord’s land where they could grow food. In return they had to work for their lord and could not move away.


Where else in Britain did feudalism develop during the Middle Ages?

Southern Scotland


How did land ownership work in The north of Scotland and Ireland during the Middle Ages?

Land was owned by members of prominent families called ‘clans’.


When did the Black Death come to Britain? What was it?

1348. It was a disease, probably a form of plague.


What proportion of the population of England, Scotland and Wales died during the Black Death?

One third


What were the six effects of the Black Death?

1. The smaller population meant there was less need to grow cereal crops.
2. There were labour shortages and peasants began to demand higher wages.
3. New social classes appeared, including owners of large areas of land (later called the gentry)
4. People left the countryside to live in towns
5. In the towns, growing wealth led to the development of a strong middle class
6. In Ireland, the Black Death killed many in the Pale, which for a time reduced the area controlled by the English.


What does parliament originate from?

From the king’s council of advisers, which included important noblemen and the leaders of the Church.


What important legal and political development took place in 1215?

King John was forced by his noblemen to agree to a number of demands that imposed formal limits to his power. The result was a charter of rights called the Magna Carta (the Great Charter) as a result of which the king would need to involve his noblemen in decisions in the future.


What was the Magna Carta?

It was a charter of rights that protected the rights of the nobility and restricted the king’s power to collect taxes or to make or change laws.


Why were parliaments called in England during the Middle Ages?

For the king to consult his nobles, particularly when he needed to raise money.


Why was parliament split into two Houses?

Due to the growing numbers attending.


What were the two Houses that parliament was split into? Who were they comprised of?

The House of Lords, which consisted of nobility, great land owners and bishops; and the House of Commons, consisting of Knights, who were usually smaller landowners, and wealthy people from towns and cities.


True or False: The entire population could join in electing the members of the Commons during the Middle Ages.

False. Only a small part of the population was able to join in the election of the members of the Commons.


How many houses or Estates did the parliament in Scotland have? Name them.

Three: the lords, the Commons and the clergy.


During the Middle Ages in England, judges developed ‘common law’ by a process of __________ and __________.

Precedence, traditions.


In Scotland, the legal system developed differently and laws were ________.

Codified (written down)