The physiotherapist is right: Easter Edition (CH14) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The physiotherapist is right: Easter Edition (CH14) Deck (21)
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1

What is TENS?

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

2

How is TENS delivered?

Biphasic pulsed current

3

What is the clinical rationale for TENS?

Pain management

4

How would you describe TENS waveform?

Biphasic, rectangular, symmetric

5

What is the advantage of symmetric waveform?

It prevents accumulation of electrical charges reducing agitation

6

What is the nature of A-beta fibers?

Mechanosensitive

7

What is the nature of A-delta fibers?

Nociception

8

What is the nature of C fibers?

Nociception

9

How does the pain gate close?

When large fibers activate, inhibitory neurons activate in the substantia gelatinosa, they inhibit T-cells or pain transmitting cells.

10

What settings allow for targetting of certain fibers?

Amplitude and pulse duration

11

TENS targeted at large diameter sensory fibers is called:

Sensory-level stimulation

12

TENS targeted at larger fibers that can elicit painless muscle contraction is called:

Motor-level stimulation

13

TENS targeted at smaller fibers with even higher amplitude and longer pulse durations is called:

Noxious-level stimulation

14

What is the purpose of Noxious-level stimulation?

Activation of the opiate system

15

When endogenous opiates are secreted how does this affect T-cells (pain transmitting, not the immune ones)?

It starts a negative feed back loop that ends with inhibition of said T-cells

16

Conventional mode doses operate at what level, how long does analgesia last?

Sensory level, relatively short

17

A low frequency long duration mode, that targets A-beta and Alpha motor fibers, simulates what other type of therapy?

Acupuncture

18

Delivery of relatively long, high frequency and amplitude that targets all fibers is called?

Brief-Intense mode

19

How long does analgesia from brief-intense mode last?

Relatively long compared to other modes

20

Delivery of a burst of pulses aimed at a-beta and alpha motor fibers with low burst frequency describes what?

Burst mode

21

What is modulation mode?

A randomization of pulse duration, current amplitude, and frequency. This prevents habituation to electrical input