Flashcards in Who wants to be a physiotherapist: Easter Edition (CH13) Deck (35)
What is the goal of NMES?
Preserve and recover muscle function in patients and to improve muscle strength in healthy individuals
A subset of NMES dealing with denervated muscles is called?
EMS, electrical muscle stimulation, (requires unique equipment)
List three types of current used in NMES.
Biphasic pulsed, Russian, Interferential
What are the different types of electrodes used in NMES?
Rubber/Carbon, Stainless steal knit fabric, Intravaginal, Intrarectal, Suction (w/ vacuum unit)
How can NMES be used to strengthen muscle?
Mimicing volitional contraction or superimposing it over volitional contraction
What is the geometric configuration of a current?
Current that has only one phase in one polarity/direction?
Current that has two phases in two polarities/directions?
Ways to describe a biphasic current include:
Symmetrical/Asymmetrical, Balanced/unbalanced, Shape
Symmetrical waves are always:
Balanced (0 net charge)
A single momentary fluctuation of current.
A sinusoidal pulse:
Successive pulses separated by a time of no current:
Ways of describing the length of a pulse or burst time and the time between?
Pulse or burst duration; interpulse, interburst duration.
Intereferential current is created how?
By constructive and destructive interference of two overlapping sinusoidal waves
If you have one current at 3000 cps/Hz and another at 3050 cps/Hz, in an interferential setup, what is the resultant wave/current's frequency?
In premodulated interferential current, where do the currents interact?
Within the machine
How many poles are used in true interferential current?
The area affected by true interferential current has what shape?
A four-leaf clover
How does vector scan interferential current work?
One current's amplitude varies between 50 and 100% of the maximum value to create a larger area of affect
Stereodynamic mode of IFC uses how many electrodes? What type effect does this have?
6 electrodes, creates a 3 dimensional shape
Contrast the spacial recruitment of motor units in Russian current to physiologic contraction.
Russian evokes larger motor units first starting with fast twitch, glycolytic fibers. Physiologic is opposite with slow-twitch oxidative fibers recruited first with smaller motor units.
T/F Russian stimulation is optimal contraction with slow onset of fatigue.
False; This is true of physiologic contraction
Of the following statements proposed by Kots, which is supported by literature:
1. Russian current is painless
2. Russian current produces greater force than voluntary contraction
3. Russian current produces lasting gains
What is IFC useful for?
Pain management, possibly gastric motility (limited support)
What settings, on Russian stimulation, help mimic physiologic contraction?
Ramp up/down time
Burst frequency and current amplitude are correlate to what physiologically (with regards to motor unit recruitment)?
Frequency - Temporal activation
Amplitude - Spatial activation
What is on:off time?
The ratio of time when current is on to when it is off
What is duty cycle?
The percent value of when a current is on (i.e. 16% of the time there is current, or something like that)