The Reformation 17.3-17.4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Reformation 17.3-17.4 Deck (78):

What tool allowed Luther to spread his ideas and propel the reformation into a religious revolution?

The printing press


Who invented the printing press?

Johannes Gutenburg


What occurred before the reformation that made the people more accepting of religious change?

Secular rulers challenged the Pope
Germany was divided into competing states
Northern merchants resented paying taxes to the Church
World leaders saw the pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authority
Church leaders had become corrupt
European leaders were jealous of the Church's wealth
The renaissance made people question the church


What pope admitted to have fathered several children?

Alexander VI


What were the main issues that the church faced and what needed to be reformed?

Priests and Monks were uneducated, couldn't teach people well
Priests were marrying, gambling and drinking
Indulgences were being sold


What were the names of 2 early reformers that came before Luther but saw little success?

John Wycliffe of England
Jan Hus of Bohemia


What did Martin Luther's parents want him to become?

A lawyer


What did Martin Luther become?

A monk and a teacher


Where and what did Martin Luther teach?

Scripture at the University of Wittenburg in the German state Saxony


What was the name of list of complaints about the church that Luther made?

95 Theses


When was the 95 theses published?

October 31, 1517


What inspired Luther to write the 95 theses?

A friar Johann Tetzel was selling indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's cathedral in Rome


Why did Luther dislike the idea of selling indulgences?

Indulgences were not supposed to affect God's right to judge, and that selling indulgences gave people the impression that you could buy your way into Heaven


What is an indulgence?

An indulgence is a pardon. It released a sinner from performing the penalty that a priest imposed for sins.


Who did Luther attack in his 95 theses?



Where was the 95 Theses posted?

On the door of the castle church in Wittenburg


What 3 main ideas did Luther stress in his teachings?

-People could win salvation only by fait in God's gift
-All church teachings should be based on the bible. Pope and church were false authorities
-All people with faith were equal so people didn't need priests to interpret the bible for them


What was the church's response to the spread of Luther's ideas?

-Church officials originally viewed Luther as a rebellious monk that needed to be punished
-Eventually Pope Leo X issued a decree that threatened Luther with excommunication, Luther threw the letter into a bonfire in Wittenburg and he was excommunicated


What was the Emperor's response to the spread of Luther's ideas?

-Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and devout catholic, called Luther to stand trial in the town of Worms, Luther refused
-Charles created the Edict of Worms that declared Luther a heretic and outlaw


What did the Edict of Worms say?

Along with declaring Luther an outlaw and heretic, the edict stated that all of his books were to be burned and that no one was to give Luther food or shelter


What was Luther's response to the Edict of Worms?

Luther was sheltered in the castle of Frederick the Wise of Saxony, he stayed there for a year and translated the bible into German


What is the name of the followers of Luther?



What occurred during the peasant revolt?

Peasants were inspired by the rebellious nature of the reformations and rose up against serfdom. They raided and burned monasteries.


What was Luther's reaction to the peasant's revolt?

Luther wrote a letter urging German princes to show no mercy in putting down the rebellion. German armies crushed the revolt and as many as 100,000 were killed. This caused Luther to lose the trust of many peasants.


What was the term originally given to the group of German princes who opposed the catholic church?



What are the 3 main protestant religions?



What are the 2 main catholic religions?

Eastern Orthodox
Roman Catholic


After the defeat of the Protestants by King Charles V, what was created?

The peace of Ausburg


What did the Peace of Ausburg allow?

Princes to decide what religion the people of his state would follow


Who became King of England in 1509?

Henry VIII


What title was given to Henry VIII by the pope for his efforts to combat Luther's ideas

"Defender of the Faith"


Who did Henry appoint as head advisor?

Thomas Wolsey, a cardinal


What did the act of Supremacy allow?

The Act of Supremacy broke England away from the Catholic Church's control. This allowed the king to become the religious leader of the church of England and allowed Henry VIII to allow his own divorce from Catherine who couldn't produce a male heir to the throne. Henry then married Anne Boleyn.


Who was Henry VIII's first wife?

Catherine of Aragon, from Spain


Who was Henry VIII's second wife?

Anne Boleyn


Who was Henry VIII third wife?

Jane Seymour


Who was a devout catholic that was executed by Henry VIII?

Thomas More


What happened to Anne Boleyn after she wasn't able to produce a son?

Beheaded for treason


When did Henry die?



Who were Henry's children who ruled?

Edward VI, nine years old when he took the throne
Mary, returned England back to Catholicism
Elizabeth I, Anne Boleyn's daughter, restored protestantism


What was the new church called when Elizabeth I restored protestantism?

Anglican Church, or the Church of England


What did Elizabeth do to the church system?

The church of England was the only legal church but it had appeals to Catholics and Protestants alike.


Traits of the Anglican Church:

Priests could marry
Sermons delivered in English
Catholic services


What rulers threatened the throne of Elizabeth I?

Her cousin, Mary Queen of the Scots
Philip II, King of Spain


What problems did Elizabeth face?

Running out of money
Pushback from Protestants who wanted more reform
Catholics wanted to overthrow her


What government did John Calvin believe was ideal?

A Theocracy, a government controlled by religious leaders


What city was John Calvin asked to lead by protestants?

Geneva, Switzerland


Traits of the Calvinist Church:

Council of elders govern each church
God has predetermined who will be saved
Bible is sole source of revealed truth
Worship service focused on preaching
Believers interpret the bible for themselves


Traits of the Lutheran Church:

Ministers led congregations
Salvation can be achieved by faith alone
Bible is sole source of revealed truth
Worship focused on preaching and ritual
Believers interpret the bible for themselves


Reform in Switzerland was started by?

Huldrych Zwingli, a Catholic priest who was inspired by Luther and the humanism of Erasmus


What happened to Zwingli?

His reforms were put to action and war broke out, he was killed in said war


Who was John Calvin?

A young law student in France, he published "Institutes of the Christian Religion."


What did the "Institutes of the Christian Religion," book express?

-Mankind was sinful by nature
-God chose very few to save
-God used predestination to save people


What were the rules set by John Calvin in the city of Geneva?

-Everyone attended religion class
-No wearing of bright clothes
-No playing card games
-No preaching of different religions


Who was impressed by John Calvin's teachings in Geneva and went on to take what he learned to Scotland?

John Knox


What were the followers of John Knox called?



What were Calvin's followers called in France?



What occurred between the Huguenots and Catholics on St. Bartholomew's day in Paris in 1572?

Catholics began hunting and killing protestants at dawn. The massacres lasted 6 months and spread to other cities. As many as 12,000 Huguenots were killed.


Traits of the Anabaptists:

-Only baptized adults
-Believed that church and state should be separate
-Refused to fight in wars
-Shared their possessions
-Didn't believe in following earthly beings such as kings or generals


What does "Anabaptist," mean in Greek?

Baptize again


What happened to the Anabaptists?

They were persecuted by protestants and catholics alike who believed they were radicals, they survived and influenced the Amish, Quakers, Baptists and Mennonites


Who protected John Calvin from being executed?

Marguerite of Navarre


Who was Luther's wife and what did she do?

Katherina von Bora, had 6 children, managed finances, fed all who visited their house, supported her husband's work


How were woman treated by religious leaders?

Restricted, expected to be a house wife and discouraged from becoming leaders in church by protestants and catholics alike


What movement was created to slow/stop the growth of the Protestants?

Catholic Reformation/Counter Reformation


Where did Ignatius of Loyola grow up?

His father's castle in Spain


What was a major turning point in the life of Ignatius?

When he was injured in war, allowing him much time to think about his religion and philosophy


What book did Ignatius of Loyola write?

"Spiritual Exercises"


What was "Spiritual Exercises," about?

-Day by day plan of meditation, prayer and study
-Compared physical and spiritual exercise


What was for the name of the followers of Ignatius?

The Society of Jesus, Jesuits


What did the Jesuits do?

Founded schools throughout Europe
Sent missionaries throughout the world to spread the Catholic faith
Tried to stop the spread of Protestantism


Where did the Jesuits stop the conversion the most?

Southern Germany and Poland


What did Pope Paul III do for the Counter Reformation?

-Investigated the selling of Indulgences
-Approved the Jesuit order
-Used the inquisition to destroy heresy
-Called the Council of Trent


What did the Council of Trent accomplish?

It was decided that:
-The church's interpretation of the bible was final
-Christians needed faith and good works for salvation
-Bible and Church were equally important powers for guiding Christian life
-Indulgences were valid, but selling of them was banned


What did Paul IV do for the Counter Reformation?

-Carried out the councils decrees
-Created the "Index of Forbidden Books"


Who are the 2 most famous Jesuit missionaries and where did they work?

Francis Xavier, India and Japan
Matteo Ricci, China


How many schools do the Jesuits run today in the US?

45 high schools and 28 colleges


What were the big results of the Reformation?

-Ended Christian unity in Europe
-Growth of Protestant Church and ideas
-Emphasis of education was increased
-Modern state nations developed
-Pope lost much influence and power
-Kings and secular leaders gained power