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Flashcards in The Respiratory System Deck (99)
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Is the control of breathing under conscious control, unconscious control or both?



What separates the 2 lungs?

The mediastinum.


Describe the normal, living appearance of the lungs.

In the healthy living person the lungs are light, soft and spongy.


Describe the location of the lungs.

The lungs are located within the thorax and extend from their apex, just above the first rib superiorly, level with T1, to the diaphragm inferiorly, level with T12 at their most inferior point in the posterior thorax on inspiration.


The lungs attach to the heart and trachea by the structures that comprise the what?

Roots of the lungs.


What is the root of the lung formed by?

By the bronchus, nerves, lymphatic vessels and the pulmonary vessels entering and emerging from the lung at its hilum.


At the hilum the visceral pleura reflects to become the what?

The parietal pleura.


What fissures divide the lungs into lobes?

The horizontal and oblique fissures.


How many lobes do the right and left lungs have?

The right lung has three lobes and the left lung has two lobes.


How does the size and the weight of the 2 lungs differ?

The right lung is larger and heavier than the left lung but it is shorter and wider because the right dome of the diaphragm is higher.


Describe the margin of each lung.

The anterior margin of the right lung is relatively straight whereas the margin of the left lung has a deep cardiac notch.


The cardiac notch indents the what?

The anteroinferior aspect of the superior lobe of the left lung.


Name the 3 surfaces of the lungs.

The costal, mediastinal and diaphragmatic surfaces.


Name the 3 borders of the lungs.

The anterior, inferior, and posterior borders.


Each lung has an apex extending into the root of the neck, above which rib?

The first rib.


Each lung is enclosed by a serous pleural sac consisting of two membranes called the what?

The pleurae.


Describe the visceral pleura.

The visceral pleura covers the lungs and is adherent to all its surfaces, including the horizontal and oblique fissures; it cannot be separated from the lungs.


Describe the parietal pleura.

The parietal pleura lines the pulmonary cavities, it is adherent to the thoracic wall, the mediastinum and the diaphragm.


Name and describe the 4 parts of the parietal pleura.

Costal pleura - covers the internal surfaces of the thoracic wall

Mediastinal pleura - covers the lateral aspects of the mediastinum

Diaphragmatic pleura - covers the superior aspect of the diaphragm on each side of the mediastinum

Cervical pleura - extends through the superior thoracic aperture forming domed pleura over the apex of the lung


What is the pleural cavity?

The pleural cavity is the potential space between the layers of pleura.


What fills the pleural cavity and what is its function?

It is filled with serous pleural fluid which lubricates the pleural surfaces and allows the layers of the pleura to slide smoothly over each other during respiration. The fluid also provides the surface tension that keeps the surface of the lung in contact with the thoracic wall.


The respiratory system can be divided into what?

The upper and lower respiratory system.


Where is the upper respiratory system located?

The upper respiratory system extends from the nose to the top of the trachea, including the larynx.


What is the function of the upper respiratory system and what does it do to the air before it reaches the lungs?

The upper respiratory tract conditions inspired air to match the environment in the lungs.

Before reaching the lungs air is:
- Warmed to body temperature
- Humidified
- Filtered for particulates (>10μm)


What does the lower respiratory system consist of?

- Trachea
- Bronchi
- Bronchioles
- Alveoli


What is the function of the lower respiratory system?

- Gas exchange
- Conducting inspired air to the tissues involved in gas exchange
- Further removal of particulates


Which region of the brain contains the respiratory centre that controls the rhythm of breathing?

The respiratory centre is located in the lower part of the brainstem, in the medulla oblongata.


Name the neurons that are active during breathing in and out and when they're active.

Inspiratory neurones - During inspiration
Expiratory neurones - During expiration


The automatic rhythm of breathing can be modified by the afferent information. Afferent information comes from where?

- Chemoreceptors
- The brain
- Receptors in the lungs


Which nerves innervate the diaphragm?

Right and left phrenic nerves.