The Special Senses (Hearing) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Special Senses (Hearing) Deck (41):
1

What is the ear involved with

Hearing and balance

2

What are the general structures of the ear

The external ear, the middle ear, the inner ear

3

What are the parts of the external ear

Pinna
External Auditory Canal
Tympanic Membrane

4

What is the Pinna do

it collects sounds

5

What does the External Auditory Canal do

Funnels sound into the ear

6

What does the tympanic membrane (Eardrum) do

transfers sound into the middle ear

7

Bones of the middle ear

Auditory Ossicles

8

What are the auditory ossicles and what does it do

Malleus, Incus, and Stapes; increase the force of the sound

9

What do the auditory Ossicles do

Conduct sound from the tympanic membrane o the oval window at the inner ear

10

What is the tympanic reflex

it holds te auditory ossicles from stabbing into the inner ear and protects it from loud sounds, using the small skeletal muscles attached to the auditory ossicles

11

What connects the middle ears to the throat

Auditory tubes (Pharyngotympanic Tubes)

12

What is the purpose of the pharyngotympanic tubes (auditory tubes)

Helps maintain equal air pressure on both sides of the eardrum

13

What are the parts of the Inner Ear

Labyrinth
Vetibule
Semicircular Canals
Cochlea

14

What is special about the inner ear

it is filled with fluid

15

The Bony and membranous channels of the inner ear

Labyrinth

16

Central egg-shaped cavity of the labyrinth

Vestibule

17

3 rings of bone and membranous tissue that extend from the posterior of the vesitibule

Semicircular Canals

18

Bony chamber that resembles a snail shell, extends from the anterior of the vestibule

Cochlea

19

Receptor organ for hearing

The Organ of Corti

20

Pressure disturbance originating from a vibrating object and propagated by the molecules that it disturbs (e.g. air, water)

Sound

21

Number of waves passing a point in a specified period of time

Frequency

22

The higher the frequency, the higher

the pitch

23

The higher the frequency, the shorter

the sound waves

24

The intensity of the sound

Amplitude

25

The higher the amplitude, the

louder it sounds

26

What is the transmission of sound to the inner ear (travel of impulse to inner ear)

Sound waves go into the pinna-> External Auditory Canal-> Hits Tympanic Membrane-> Vibrates malleus->hits incus-> vibrates stapes -> Hits oval window

27

The ossicles of the inner ear do what to sound waves

they amplify the sound waves

28

In the inner ear, pressure of the what on the what causes movment of fluid in the inner ear

stapes; oval window

29

How do cochlear hair cells work in the organ of corti

they are stiff and will move due to fluid pressure from the sound waves

30

The further the hair cells from the oval window

the lower the frequency they detect

31

How do you hear, what is the path that hearing impulses take

They travel in the cochlear branch of the vestibulocochlear nerves ->medulla oblongata -> midbrain-> Thalamus -> Temporal Lobes of Cerebrum

32

Patches of Hair cells that detect fluid movement or gravity

Macula

33

Alone, the Macula detects

Static Equilibrium

34

As part of the Crista Ampullaris, the Macula detects

Dynamic Equilibrium

35

Monitors the position of the head

Static Equilibirum

36

What does static Equilibrium do

It uses gravity to help control posture and monitors the position of the head

37

Organ of static Equilibrium and where is it located

Macula; vestibule

38

Control of balance when the head and/or body are moved or rotated suddenly

Dynamic Equilibrium

39

Organ of Dynamic Equilibrium and where is it located

Crista Ampullaris, ampullae of semicircular canals

40

What are other parts of your body that can help maintain equilibrium

Eyes and proprioceptors associated with certain joints

41

What is the equilibrium pathway, how does the impulse travel

1). Vestibulocochlear Nerve -> Vestibular Nuclear Complex in Brain Stem

2). Vestibulocochlear Nerve -> Cerebellum